----------------------------------------------------------------------------- GNU's Bulletin July, 1996 The GNU's Bulletin is the semi-annual newsletter of the Free Software Foundation, bringing you news about the GNU Project. Free Software Foundation, Inc. Telephone: +1-617-542-5942 59 Temple Place - Suite 330 Fax: (including Japan) +1-617-542-2652 Boston, MA 02111-1307 Electronic Mail: `firstname.lastname@example.org' USA World Wide Web: http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents ----------------- GNU's Who Administrivia and Copyright Other GPL'ed Software What Is the FSF? What Is Copyleft? What Is the Hurd? What Is a GNU/Linux system? FSF and Debian Separate Amicably Some Bad News about Pine First Free Software Conference GNUs Flashes Free Software Redistributors Donate Help from Free Software Companies Free Software Support What Is the LPF? News from the LPF Help the GNU Translation Project GNU & Other Free Software in Japan Forthcoming GNUs GNU Software Configuring GNU Software GNU Software Currently Available Program/Package Cross Reference CD-ROMs Pricing of the GNU CD-ROMs What do the Different Prices Mean? Why Is There an Individual Price? Is There a Maximum Price? December 1995 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM MS-DOS/Windows Book with CD-ROM Source Code CD-ROMs July 1996 Source Code CD-ROMs December 1995 Source Code CD-ROMs November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM CD-ROM Subscription Service The Deluxe Distribution GNU Documentation How to Get GNU Software FSF T-shirt Free Software for Microcomputers Project GNU Wish List Thank GNUs Donations Translate Into Free Software Cygnus Matches Donations! Free Software Foundation Order Form Address Page GNU's Who ********* Miles Bader and Thomas Bushnell, n/BSG (whose name used to be Michael) work on the Hurd. Roland McGrath still works on the Hurd and maintains `make' and the GNU C library; after 9 years with us, he has decided to join the University of Utah's Flux Project (see *Note GNUs Flashes::, for information on this project). We thank him for his work and dedication. Karl Heuer enhances Emacs and is in charge of making Deluxe Distributions. Jim Blandy has returned to the FSF temporarily, and is working on a desktop interface. Melissa Weisshaus is working on special documentation projects. Peter H. Salus has joined us to do fundraising and publishing and manage the non-technical side of the FSF. He ran the *Note First Conference on Freely Redistributable Software::. Carol Botteron has joined us to manage the FSF Office, and Tami Friedman has joined the Office staff. Brian Youmans is our new Distribution Manager. Robert J. Chassell is our Secretary/Treasurer. Daniel Hagerty has left the FSF; we thank him for his hard work. Thanks to volunteer Scott Ewing for helping to coordinate all the volunteers in the GNU Project. Richard Stallman continues as a volunteer who does countless tasks, such as Emacs maintenance. Volunteers Phil Nelson and Len Tower work on our Web site. Len also remains our online JOAT (jack-of-all-trades), for mailing lists, gnUSENET newsgroups, information requests, etc. Administrivia and Copyright *************************** Written and Edited by: Melissa Weisshaus, Robert J. Chassell, and Leonard H. Tower Jr. Illustrations by: Etienne Suvasa Japanese Edition by: Mieko Hikichi and Nobuyuki Hikichi ISSN (International Standard Serial Number): 1075-7813 The GNU's Bulletin is published at the end of January and the end of July each year. Please note that there is no postal mailing list. To get a copy, send your name and address with your request to the address on the top menu. Enclosing $0.78 in U.S. Postage and/or a donation of a few dollars is appreciated but not required. If you're outside the USA, sending a mailing label and enough International Reply Coupons for a package of about 100 grams is appreciated but not required. (Including a few extra International Reply Coupons for copying costs is also appreciated.) Copyright (C) 1996 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Permission is granted to anyone to make or distribute verbatim copies of this document, in any medium, provided that the copyright notice and permission notice are preserved, and that the distributor grants the recipient permission for further redistribution as permitted by this notice. Other GPL'ed Software ********************* We maintain a list of copylefted software that we do not presently distribute. FTP the file `/pub/gnu/GPLedSoftware' from a GNU FTP host (listed in *Note How to Get GNU Software::). Please let us know of additional programs we should mention. We don't list Emacs Lisp Libraries; host `archive.cis.ohio-state.edu' has a list of those you can FTP in the file `/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive/LCD-datafile.Z'. What Is the FSF? **************** The Free Software Foundation is dedicated to eliminating restrictions on people's right to use, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs. We do this by promoting the development and use of free software. Specifically, we are putting together a complete, integrated software system named "GNU" ("GNU's Not Unix", pronounced "guh-new") that will be upwardly compatible with Unix. Most parts of this system are already being used and distributed. The word "free" in our name refers to freedom, not price. You may or may not pay money to get GNU software, but either way you have three specific freedoms once you get it: first, the freedom to copy a program, and distribute it to your friends and co-workers; second, the freedom to change a program as you wish, by having full access to source code; third, the freedom to distribute a modified version and thus help build the community. Free software means you can study the source and learn how such programs are written; it means you can port it or improve it, and then share your work with others. If you redistribute GNU software, you may charge a distribution fee or you may give it away, so long as you include the source code and the GNU General Public License; see *Note What Is Copyleft::, for details. Other organizations distribute whatever free software happens to be available. By contrast, the Free Software Foundation concentrates on the development of new free software, working towards a GNU system complete enough to eliminate the need to use a proprietary system. Besides developing GNU, the FSF distributes GNU software and manuals for a distribution fee, and accepts gifts (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to support GNU development. Most of the FSF's funds come from its distribution service. The Board of the Foundation is: Richard M. Stallman, President; Robert J. Chassell, Secretary/Treasurer; Gerald J. Sussman, Harold Abelson, and Leonard H. Tower Jr., Directors. What Is Copyleft? ***************** The simplest way to make a program free is to put it in the public domain, uncopyrighted. But this permits proprietary modified versions, which deny others the freedom to redistribute and modify; such versions undermine the goal of giving freedom to *all* users. To prevent this, "copyleft" uses copyrights in a novel manner. Typically, copyrights take away freedoms; copyleft preserves them. It is a legal instrument that requires those who pass on a program to include the rights to use, modify, and redistribute the code; the code and the freedoms become legally inseparable. The copyleft used by the GNU Project is made from the combination of a regular copyright notice and the "GNU General Public License" (GPL). The GPL is a copying license which basically says that you have the aforementioned freedoms. An alternate form, the "GNU Library General Public License" (LGPL), applies to a few (but not most) GNU libraries. This license permits linking the libraries into proprietary executables under certain conditions. The appropriate license is included in each GNU source code distribution and in many manuals. Printed copies are available upon request. We strongly encourage you to copyleft your programs and documentation, and we have made it as simple as possible for you to do so. The details on how to apply either form of GNU Public License appear at the end of each license. What Is the Hurd? ***************** The Hurd is a collection of server processes that run on top of Mach, a free message-passing microkernel developed at CMU. The Hurd and Mach together form the kernel of the GNU operating system. The GNU C Library implements the Unix "system call" interface by sending messages to Hurd servers as appropriate. The Hurd allows users to create and share useful projects without knowing much about the internal workings of the system--projects that might never have been attempted without freely available source, a well-designed interface, and a multiple server design. The Hurd is thus like other expandable GNU software, e.g. Emacs and GUILE. Currently, there are free ports of the Mach kernel to the 386 PC, the DEC PMAX workstation, and several other machines, with more in progress, including the Amiga, PA-RISC HP 700, & DEC Alpha-3000. Contact us if you want to help with one of these or start your own. Porting the GNU Hurd & GNU C Library is easy (easier than porting GNU Emacs, certainly easier than porting the compiler) once a Mach port to a particular platform exists. Right now we are using the University of Utah's Mach distribution which we hope will be unified with the distribution produced by the Open Software Foundation. The first test version of the Hurd was just released. *Note GNUs Flashes::, for a report on recent progress. We need help with significant Hurd-related projects. Experienced system programmers who are interested should send mail to `email@example.com'. Porting the Mach kernel or the GNU C Library to new systems is another way to help. You can get the Hurd from `prep.ai.mit.edu', our FTP distribution site, along with complete binaries for an i386 GNU system. We will not be distributing these things on CD-ROM until they are more stable. What Is a GNU/Linux system? *************************** by Richard M. Stallman A GNU/Linux system is a system which is a combination of Linux and GNU. Linux is a kernel, compatible with the Unix kernel, written by Linus Torvalds. GNU is a Unix-like operating system. We started the GNU Project in 1984 with the aim of bringing such a system into existence. A Unix-like operating system consists of many components; we had to obtain each of the important components somehow. The job was so large that many of the people who sympathized with the goal were discouraged from attempting it, but we decided we would reach the goal no matter how long it took. We found some components already available as free software--for example, the X Window System and TeX. Naturally we decided to use them, since the job was big enough even with short cuts. We obtained other components by helping to convince their developers to make them free--for example, the Berkeley network utilities. The rest of components, we had to write. These include GNU Emacs, the GNU C & C++ compilers & libraries, Bash, Ghostscript, Groff, & many others. All of these various components--those we wrote, those we helped make free, and those we found already available--together make up the GNU system. Until recently, users couldn't run the GNU system, because one part (the kernel; *note What Is the Hurd::.) was not yet ready. (We made the first test release just recently.) However, for a couple of years now, it has been possible to put together the Linux kernel and the almost-complete GNU system, resulting in a complete Unix-like free operating system suitable for actual use. While commonly referred to as "Linux systems", we prefer the term "Linux-based GNU systems," or "GNU/Linux systems" for short, since these systems are mostly the same as *the* GNU system. This gives Linus credit for the kernel that he wrote, while still indicating that these systems *as a whole* are essentially variants of the GNU system. We also occasionally use the term "GNU/Hurd system" to emphasize that we mean a version of the GNU system which uses the Hurd rather than Linux. We think it is proper to give the GNU Project credit for making the free Unix-like system that it set out for a decade ago. But there is a more important reason for friends of GNU to use names like "Linux-based GNU system" instead of "Linux system." This is to help spread the GNU Project's philosophical idea: that there is ethical importance in freeing users to share software and cooperate in improving it; that free software belongs to a community, and people who benefit from the community should feel a moral obligation to help build the community when they have a chance. When users install a system which they call "Linux," they can easily miss ever seeing the GNU idea. When businesses promote a system and call it "Linux," they can easily avoid bringing the GNU idea to users' attention. And if the GNU idea is not widely known, fewer people will write free software. A conference was recently announced on the topic of developing "Linux applications"; although the conference is about using the GNU system, the conference announcement did not mention GNU. The announcement does not even hint that there is any ethical reason to contribute to free software. On the contrary, it offers a panel entitled, "Licenses and licensing--I don't want to give away my application!!!" (The three `!' marks appear in the announcement). Even the title encourages people writing new software (which could enhance all free operating systems) to make it proprietary instead, thus contributing nothing to the free software community. It would be harder to express that attitude if everyone knew that the topic is a variant of the GNU system. It is up to you and us to make sure they know. To do that, we have to inform people using variant GNU systems that that is what they are doing. So please use the term "Linux-based GNU system" or "GNU/Linux" when you talk about a system which is a combination of Linux and GNU. At first, it may feel strange to go against the flow, but think how much more "against the flow" it was to start writing a free operating system. We did it, and you can do it. FSF and Debian Separate Amicably ******************************** Ian Murdock started the effort to put together Debian, a Linux-based GNU system designed to be easy to install & upgrade. He asked for & got the FSF's sponsorship for the project, hoping that besides being useful in its own right, it would give the FSF experience in packaging up a complete GNU system. This March, Murdock stepped down as the head of Debian, having become too busy with other work. The new team head did not want FSF sponsorship. As a result, the FSF is no longer a sponsor of Debian. We wish the situation were otherwise. However, we are working together on some design issues. We have not yet decided whether the FSF will distribute a CD-ROM of Debian, since we don't know if that would achieve enough of the goals that we previously hoped for as sponsors of the system. Some Bad News about Pine ************************ Pine is a simple electronic mail reader for beginning users, which we have included on our Source CDs since 1995. In March of 1996, the Pine developers released a new version with new usage restrictions. The new terms do not permit everyone to redistribute, and do not permit distribution of modified versions at all. Either restriction would be enough to prevent Pine from being free software. The previous versions of Pine remain free; however, no substantial program is bug-free, and every program needs to be maintained. So this April the Free Software Foundation recruited a team of volunteers to carry on development of the free version of Pine, starting from the last available free release (3.91). Forking a program is unfortunate; people should try their best to work together before giving up and working separately. So before embarking on separate development, we tried our best to persuade the old developers to make their work free software once again. In the end, though, they rejected our plea. The new team has just started, and has yet to do a release. However, you can report bugs in Pine 3.91 to them at the address `firstname.lastname@example.org', so they can be fixed in the next release of the free alternative version of Pine. First Free Software Conference ****************************** In February, the FSF hosted the First Conference on Freely Redistributable Software at the Cambridge (MA) Marriott. The Conference drew 185 attendees from 14 countries, with Linus Torvalds and Richard M. Stallman as the keynote speakers, eight tutorials, eleven technical presentations, and a half dozen BoFs. The Conference Proceedings have been published and are available from the FSF while supplies last (see the FSF Order Form, in the centerfold). The FSF is currently negotiating with groups in Europe and the U.S. concerning co-sponsorship of future events. The FSF thanks everyone who made this Conference a success, especially the program committee: Peter H. Salus (Chair), Lisa A. Bloch, Robert J. Chassell, Chris Demetriou, Marshall Kirk McKusick, Rich Morin, Eric S. Raymond, & Vernor Vinge. We also thank John Gilmore & Red Hat Software for subsidizing several of the European presenters, Stuart McRobert of Imperial College, London for producing the Proceedings, & Cygnus Support for donating the funds to print them. The technical presentations were: * Automated Management of an Heterogeneous Distributed Production Environment - Ph. Defert et al., CERN * Freely Redistributable Software across the Internet - Current Practice and Future Directions to Overcome the Bandwidth Crisis - Neil Smith, University of Kent at Canterbury * Cheap Operating Systems Research and Teaching with Linux - Victor Yodaiken, New Mexico Tech * Freely Redistributable Instead of Commercial Software - Yugoslav Experience - Radivoje Zonji'c, Belgrade University * Linux on the OSF Mach3 Microkernel - Franois Barbou des Places, OSF Research Institute, Grenoble and Cambridge * Internationalization in the GNU Project - Ulrich Drepper, University of Karlsruhe * Perceptions - An Implementation of a Medical Information Support Environment with Freely Distributable Software - Drs. Greg W. Wettstein & Paul S. Etzell, Roger Maris Cancer Center * The RPM Packaging System - Marc Ewing & Erik Troan, Red Hat Software * Coordinating Joint Cost/No-Cost Rights for Software Developed with SBIR Funding - Philip A. Wilsey & Dale E. Martin, University of Cincinnati * Licensing Alternatives for Freely Redistributable Software - L. Peter Deutsch, Aladdin Enterprises There will be a second conference, co-sponsored by Cygnus Support, in February, 1997. See the Web site at `http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu' or contact `email@example.com' later this year for more information. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- *Strive for perfection in everything. Take the best that exists and make it better. If it doesn't exist, create it. Accept nothing nearly right or good enough.* - Sir Henry Royce, co-founder of Rolls-Royce ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- GNUs Flashes ************ * Hurd Test Release! (Also *note What Is the Hurd::.) We are pleased to announce the first public test release of the Hurd, version 0.0; it is very preliminary, and we don't recommend you try it unless you are in the mood to experiment. We are distributing it only by FTP until it becomes more stable. Much work remains to be done on reliability, efficiency, and on user-level features to take advantage of the underlying capabilities. We're making rapid progress on these tasks, and we plan to make further releases fairly often. * Preliminary GNU System Released! The first test release of the Hurd has enabled us to release a complete GNU system in binary form, for 32-bit PC clones. Like the Hurd itself, this system release is preliminary, recommended for experimentation only, and available only by FTP. We have thus come in sight of the goal which the GNU project was founded to achieve. We will actually reach that goal when the system becomes reliable enough that we can recommend it for real use. * www.gnu.ai.mit.edu The GNU Project now has a site on the World Wide Web at URL: `http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu'. We would like to thank Networks On-Line (URL: `http://www.nol.net') for donating use of the hardware & Internet connection, and their staff for setting up the machine. We would also like to thank Phil Nelson and Len Tower for being the site's webmasters. They are reachable at `firstname.lastname@example.org'. * New Source Code CD! (See *Note July 1996 Source Code CD-ROMs::) We have released the July 1996 (Edition 8) Source Code CD-ROM. Once again, it is a two disk set. It includes several new programs: Automake, `enscript', Exim, `gcal', Generic NQS, `geomview', GNAT, GNUMATH, ID Utils, Inetutils, Karma, Lynx, Maxima, Miscfiles, Smail, TIFF, and WN. *Note GNU Software::, for more information about these packages. Also on the CD-ROMs are full distributions of X11R6.1, MIT Scheme, Emacs, GCC, and current versions of all other GNU Software. * GNU Miscellaneous Files Distribution We have just released the GNU Miscellaneous Files Distribution, which is a collection of non-crucial but useful files. All the files in version 1.0 have come from BSD, but files from other sources are eagerly solicited. Please send bug reports, as well as suggestions about new files to include to `email@example.com'. See the entry in *Note GNU Software Now Available::, for more information. * Free Java for Linux Machines on the way! Eric S. Raymond maintains a Linux "HOWTO" for running Java on Linux machines, including information about freely available Java software. See `http://sunsite.unc.edu/mdw/HOWTO/Java-HOWTO.html' for information. * Give to GNU the United Way! As a 501(c)3 tax-exempt organization, the FSF is eligible to receive United Way funds. When donating to United Way, one can specify that all or part of the donation be directed to the FSF. On the donor form, check the "Specific Requests" box and include the sentence, "Send my gift to the Free Software Foundation, 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111." * Tapes and MS-DOS Diskettes No Longer Available from the FSF We no longer offer tapes or MS-DOS diskettes due to very low demand. * GNU Software Works on MS-DOS (Also *note GNU Software::.) GNU Emacs 19 and many other GNU programs have been ported to MS-DOS for i386/i486/Pentium machines. We ship binaries & sources on the *Note Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM::. We will ship binaries & sources on the *Note MS-DOS/Windows Book with CD-ROM::, when it is available. * California's Department of Water Resources to use GNU GPL The Department of Water Resources (DWR) of the State of California plans to use the GNU General Public License to protect a numerical model, the "Delta Simulation Model 2" (DSM2), which is used to calculate flows, water quality, and particle movement in a tidal estuary. The DWR says that they wish to ensure that `DSM2 remain freely available to all who wish to use and modify the code for the benefit of the entire estuary community. The GPL is considered to be a practical way to achieve this goal.' * New Free Postscript Fonts Available! A commercial font supplier (URW++, of Hamburg, Germany) has released a commercial-quality set of the 35 standard Postscript Type 1 scalable fonts with the GPL. These sets include equivalents of the following type faces: *Serif:* Bookman, New Century Schoolbook, Palatino, Times; *Sans-serif:* Avant Garde, Helvetica, Helvetica Narrow; *Serif, monospace:* Courier; *Script:* Zapf Chancery; and *Symbolic:* Symbol, Zapf Dingbats. All but the symbolic fonts are available in plain, bold, italic (or oblique), and bold italic (or bold oblique) variants. The fonts are available in .PFB format (a standard Type 1 binary format originally used on PCs); the metrics are available in .AFM and .PFM formats for use by desktop publishing applications. The fonts are included in the most recent release of GNU Ghostscript, and are also available packaged separately. They replace the lower quality fonts previously released with Ghostscript. * MULE Merge Almost Complete MULE is the Multi-Lingual Emacs developed by Ken'ichi Handa at the Electro-Technical Lab in Tsukuba, Japan. Handa has readied the code for merging into Emacs and we expect to complete the merge soon. * GNU Emacs 19.32 (Also *note GNU Software::.) We have just released Emacs 19.32. It mostly fixes bugs, but it has a few new features. The most noticeable one is that marking a region with the mouse now leaves the region highlighted at least until the next input event. Also, a new timer system lets you efficiently arrange to call a Lisp function at a particular time, and mouse tracking is much faster and more reliable. Support for MS-DOS and Windows 95 is greatly improved. You can now compile Emacs with DJGPP version 2; asynchronous subprocesses now work on Windows 95; and many additional Lisp packages now work on MS-DOS. * Utah Flux Project Software Fluke, to be the base of the Flux OS, is a new "nanokernel." Design documentation, API documentation, & an experimental prototype are available. See the Web site or write to `firstname.lastname@example.org'. The Flux OS Toolkit is a framework & set of easily reusable modules to provide infrastructure needed to build OS components. To get an x86 alpha release, email `email@example.com', or see the Web site. Mach 4(x86) is a version of the Mach kernel which increases Mach 3's ease of use & practicality in a PC environment; has a much simpler GNU-style build environment; boots using GNU/Linux, NetBSD, FreeBSD, or Mach boot loaders; has source-compatibility with almost all Linux device drivers; and supports the Lites server. Utah provides sources & pre-built binaries for the kernel and Lites server, & the compiler tools to build Mach 4 under GNU/Linux, NetBSD, or FreeBSD. To get on the list, send mail to `firstname.lastname@example.org'. Lites is a usable Mach-based Unix single server based on 4.4 BSD-Lite, originally done by CMU & HUT. x86 Lites supports binary compatibility with GNU/Linux, NetBSD, & FreeBSD, & groks Linux filesystems. Utah distributes the current Lites version, with binaries for x86 & PA-RISC. The PA version runs BSD/ELF & most HP-UX binaries. OMOS is a fully programmable class server/linker/loader using Scheme as its meta-language & the BFD package for portability. PA-RISC/SOM & x86/a.out are supported. FTP to `flux.cs.utah.edu:/flux' or see the Web page: `http://www.cs.utah.edu/projects/flux/' to get them. Send mail to `email@example.com' or phone +1-801-585-3271 for more information. * New Release of GNU Make GNU `make' 3.75 runs native on three new ports since version 3.74: AmigaDOS, VMS, and Windows NT/Windows95. * Lynx now GPLed Lynx, the popular text-only Web browser is now distributed under the terms of the GNU GPL. For more information, see the Web site at `http://www.ukans.edu/'. * New/Updated Manuals since Last Bulletin (See *Note Documentation::) We recently published the `GNU Awk Users' Guide' by Arnold Robbins, which is a greatly expanded and rewritten version of our old `GAWK Manual'. We have a new edition of the Emacs Manual, for version 19.32, which describes changes since Emacs 19.29. Our `GNU Make Manual' is also a new edition with bug-fixes and additional information. Our `Using and Porting GCC' manual will soon be available in a lay-flat, bound edition. Free Software Redistributors Donate *********************************** The SNOW 2.1 CD producers added the words "Includes $5 donation to the FSF" to the front of their CD. Potential buyers will know just how much of the price is for the FSF & how much is for the redistributor. The Sun Users Group Deutschland has made it even clearer: their CD says, "Price 90 DM, + 12 DM donation to the FSF." ASCII Corporation (Japan) has also donated to the FSF and plans to add a donation to the price of their next GNU software CD-ROM. Austin Code Works, a free software redistributor, supports free software development by giving the FSF 20% of the selling price for the GNU software CDs they produce & sell. TOHDO-SHA is donating 400 yen to the FSF for each copy of `The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, Japanese Edition' sold at bookstores in Japan. CQ Publishing made a large donation from the sales of their GAWK book in Japanese, and Specialized Systems Consultants, Inc. is donating 3% of the profits from selling "Effective AWK Programming", by Arnold Robbins. Walnut Creek CDROM gives us part of their selling price every month. In the long run, the success of free software depends on how much new free software people develop. Free software distribution offers an opportunity to raise funds for such development in an ethical way. These redistributors have made use of the opportunity. Many others let it go to waste. You can help promote free software development by convincing for-a-fee redistributors to contribute--either by doing development themselves or by donating to development organizations (the FSF and others). The way to convince distributors to contribute is to demand and expect this of them. This means choosing among distributors partly by how much they give to free software development. Then you can show distributors they must compete to be the one who gives the most. To make this work, you must insist on numbers that you can compare, such as, "We will give ten dollars to the Foobar project for each disk sold." A vague commitment, such as "A portion of the profits is donated," doesn't give you a basis for comparison. Even a precise fraction "of the profits from this disk" is not very meaningful, since creative accounting and unrelated business decisions can greatly alter what fraction of the sales price counts as profit. Also, press developers for firm information about what kind of development they do or support. Some kinds make much more long-term difference than others. For example, maintaining a separate version of a GNU program contributes very little; maintaining a program on behalf of the GNU Project contributes much. Easy new ports contribute little, since someone else would surely do them; difficult ports such as adding a new CPU to the GNU compiler or Mach contribute more; major new features & programs contribute the most. By establishing the idea that supporting further development is "the proper thing to do" when distributing free software for a fee, we can assure a steady flow of resources for making more free software. Help from Free Software Companies ********************************* When choosing a free software business, ask those you are considering how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can help encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth. Wingnut (SRA's special GNU support group) regularly donates a part of its income to the FSF to support the development of new GNU programs. Listing them here is our way of thanking them. Wingnut has made a pledge to donate 10% of their income to the FSF, and has purchased several Deluxe Distribution packages in Japan. Also see *Note Cygnus Matches Donations!::. Wingnut Project Software Research Associates, Inc. 1-1-1 Hirakawa-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 102, Japan Phone: (+81-3)3234-2611 Fax: (+81-3)3942-5174 E-mail: `firstname.lastname@example.org' WWW: `http://www.sra.co.jp/public/sra/product/wingnut/' Free Software Support ********************* The Free Software Foundation does not provide technical support. Our mission is developing software, because that is the most time-efficient way to increase what free software can do. We leave it to others to earn a living providing support. We see programmers as providing a service, much as doctors and lawyers do now; both medical and legal knowledge are freely redistributable, but their practitioners charge for service. The GNU Service Directory is a list of people who offer support and other consulting services. It is `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/SERVICE' on a GNU FTP host (listed in *Note How to Get GNU Software::), on the World Wide Web at URL `http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/mirror/prep/service.html', in the file `etc/SERVICE' in the GNU Emacs distribution, and the file `SERVICE' in the GCC distribution. Contact us to get a copy or to be listed in it. Those service providers who share their income with the FSF are listed in *Note Help from Free Software Companies::. If you find a deficiency in any GNU software, we want to know. We have many Internet mailing lists for bug reports, announcements, and questions. They are also gatewayed into USENET news as the `gnu.*' newsgroups. You can request a list of the mailing lists from either address on the top menu. When we receive a bug report, we usually try to fix the problem. While our bug fixes may seem like individual assistance, they are not; they are part of preparing a new improved version. We may send you a patch for a bug so that you can help us test the fix and ensure its quality. If your bug report does not evoke a solution from us, you may still get one from another user who reads our bug report mailing lists. Otherwise, use the Service Directory. Please do not ask us to help you install software or learn how to use it--but do tell us how an installation script fails or where documentation is unclear. When choosing a service provider, ask those you are considering how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth. What Is the LPF? **************** The League for Programming Freedom (LPF) aims to protect the freedom to write software. This freedom is threatened by "look-and-feel" interface copyright lawsuits and by software patents. The League is a grass-roots organization of professors, students, business people, programmers, users, & even software companies dedicated to bringing back the freedom to write programs. The League isn't opposed to the legal system that Congress intended--copyright on individual programs. The League aims to reverse recent changes made by judges in response to special interests. Membership dues in the League are $42 per year for programmers, managers, and professionals; $10.50 for students; $21 for others. To join, please send a check and the following information: * Your name and phone numbers (home, work, or both). * The address to use for League mailings, a few each year (please indicate whether it is your home address or your work address). * The company you work for, and your position. * Your email address, so the League can contact you for political action. (If you don't want to be contacted for this, please say so, but please provide your email address anyway.) * Please mention anything about you which would enable your endorsement of the League to impress the public. * Please say whether you would like to help with League activities. * The League is not connected with the Free Software Foundation, and is not concerned with the issue of free software.* The FSF supports the League because, like any software developer smaller than Microsoft, it is endangered by software patents and interface copyrights. You are in danger, too! It would be easy to ignore the problem until you or your employer is sued, but it is more prudent to organize before that happens. If you haven't made up your mind yet, write to the League for more information: League for Programming Freedom One Kendall Square - #143 P.O. Box 9171 Cambridge, MA 02139 USA Electronic-Mail: `email@example.com' World Wide Web: `http://www.lpf.org/' FTP: `ftp.uu.net:/doc/lpf' News from the LPF ***************** by Dean Anderson, President, League for Programming Freedom Statement on Supreme Court Decision The recent Supreme Court action in `Lotus v. Borland' represents a victory for Borland, the League, developers, and users. While we wish the Supreme Court was more specific and had provided a written opinion, the Supreme Court tie allows the First Circuit decision to stand as law for the First Circuit, and as an "authoritative reference" for other Circuits. Essentially, the action means that one cannot own the user interface to programs. This action is a win for users because their investment in learning a user interface can be preserved when they change vendors. It will be more difficult to create software monopolies based on claiming an exclusive right to a user interface. This decision will promote competition in the software industry as software companies will now compete to provide better and cheaper software which speaks the languages that users already know. The League can now focus its attention on the software patent problem. Software patents are now the major threat to software developers, and to users and the general public as prices are driven up by legal and licensing costs. Software innovations which would improve our quality of life may be blocked by patent disputes and licensing quagmires. As people become more dependent on computer networks and software, the software patent issue will become more critical. Tell a Friend about the LPF The user interface copyright battle was largely fought in the courtroom, and that involved some key moments of focus and coordination. But since we will probably be battling in Congress over software patents, our approach will have to be somewhat different. Therefore, it is very important to get more members. Membership is what will get us the most clout with Congress. In the next year, we will need to gear up to promote our ideas more widely, both inside & outside of the software world. Your help & support is very important to the success of this effort, so encourage everyone you know to join the LPF! Keep writing letters! Write the LPF, your representatives, newspapers, journals, and others. Be sure to send us copies of the articles you wrote, and the publications to which they were sent. See our Web page at `http://www.lpf.org/' for more info on how to help the LPF (send suggestions to `firstname.lastname@example.org'). Help the GNU Translation Project ******************************** GNU is going international! Our Translation Project gets users, translators, and maintainers together, so GNU will gradually speak many native languages. To complete the GNU Translation Project, we need many people who like their own language and write it well, and who are also able to synergize with other translators speaking the same language as part of "translation teams". If you want to start a new team, or want more information on existing teams or other aspects of this project, write `email@example.com'. Also see *Note GNU Software::, for information about `gettext', the tool the GNU Translation Project uses to help translators and programmers. GNU & Other Free Software in Japan ********************************** Mieko (`firstname.lastname@example.org') and Nobuyuki Hikichi (`email@example.com') continue to volunteer for the GNU Project in Japan. They translate each issue of this Bulletin into Japanese and distribute it widely, along with their translation of Version 2 of the GNU General Public License. This translation of the GPL is authorized by the FSF and is available by anonymous FTP from `ftp.sra.co.jp' in `/pub/gnu/local-fix/GPL2-j'. They are working on a formal translation of the GNU Library General Public License. They also solicit donations and offer GNU software consulting. `nepoch' (the Japanese version of Epoch) & MULE are available and widely used in Japan. MULE (the MULtilingual Enhancement of GNU Emacs) can handle many character sets at once. Its features are being merged into the principal version of Emacs. *Note GNU Software::, for more details on MULE. The FSF does not distribute `nepoch', but MULE is available on the *Note July 1996 Source Code CD-ROMs::. FTP it from `sh.wide.ad.jp' in `/JAPAN/mule', or `etlport.etl.go.jp' in `/pub/mule'. An anonymous user in Japan has redistributed GNU material that was left over from an FSF Tokyo seminar. He bought these items for reader presents in magazines of Gijitsu Hyouron-Sha, a publishing company. The Village Center, Inc. prints a Japanese translation (ISBN 4-938704-02-1) of the `GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual' and puts the Texinfo source on various bulletin boards. They also publish Nobuyuki & Mieko's `Think GNU' (ISBN 4-938704-10-2); this may be the first non-FSF copylefted publication in Japan. They also redistribute GNU CD-ROMs at this bookstore: Shosen Grande 1-3-2 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 101, Japan Telephone: 03-3295-0011 Part of Village Center's profits are donated to the FSF. Their address is: Village Center, Inc. 3-2 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 101, Japan Telephone: 03-3221-3520 URL: http://www.villagecenter.co.jp/ URL: http://www.villagecenter.co.jp/gnu.html for GNU products info handling by Village Center Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd. has printed Japanese translations of the `GNU Make Manual' (ISBN 4-7952-9627-X) and the `GAWK Manual' (ISBN 4-7952-9672-8). Their address is: Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd. Nichibou Bldg. 2F 1-2-2 Sarugaku-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 101, Japan Telephone: 03-3291-4581 There is a mailing list in Japan to discuss both hardware & software which is under the GNU General Public License. It provides information about making your own computer system. The main language of the list is Japanese. If you are interested in getting information or having discussions in English, ask `firstname.lastname@example.org' or `email@example.com'. Many groups in Japan now distribute GNU software. They include JUG, a PC user group; ASCII, a periodical and book publisher; the Fujitsu FM Towns users group; and SRA's special GNU users' support group, Wingnut, who also purchased the first Deluxe Distribution package in Japan (also *note Help from Free Software Companies::.). (Since then, there have been several other purchases of Deluxe Distribution packages in Japan.) It is easy to place an order directly with the FSF from Japan, thus funding new software. To get an FSF Order Form written in Japanese, ask `firstname.lastname@example.org'. We encourage you to buy our software CDs: for example, 140 CD-ROM orders at the corporate rate allow the FSF to hire a programmer for a year to write more free software. Many programs in the field of parallel processing and knowledge processing were released to the public under the name of "ICOT Free Software (IFS)" in the Fifth Generation Computer Systems project. IFS was an 11-year Japanese project started in 1982 and FGCS was its 2-year follow-on project. As of the end of March 1996, over 3,900 persons have accessed the ICOT Web page, and almost 21,000 files have been transferred since the first release in 1992. As ICOT was wound up in June, 1995, maintenance and further development of IFS was transferred to the Japan Information Processing Development Center (JIPDEC). JIPDEC established the Research Institute for Advanced Information Technology (AITEC). AITEC not only maintains, develops, and distributes IFS, but also develops parallel knowledge processing software in collaboration with several Japanese universities. Newly developed software will be released to the public with conditions similar to those of IFS. For now, the domain name will remain `icot.or.jp'. For more information, please see URL `http://www.icot.or.jp/'. Forthcoming GNUs **************** Information about the current status of released GNU programs can be found in *Note GNU Software::. Here is some news of future plans. * GNU C Library (For current status, *note GNU Software::.) Version 2.0 of the GNU C library is now in test release. GNU/Hurd support is now fully functional. Roland McGrath and Ulrich Drepper have been working steadily on support for GNU/Linux; the new GNU C library will eventually be the new standard system C library on GNU/Linux, `libc.so.6'. David Mosberger-Tang and Richard Henderson have contributed Alpha and 64-bit ELF support along with many fixes and improvements; the next major release of Linux/Alpha will use the GNU C library as the sole system library. Andreas Schwab has contributed Linux/m68k support. This release adds several new functions traditionally found in Unix systems & some small new GNU extensions, as well as major new internationalization support. Ulrich Drepper has made invaluable contributions to the library in recent months, including new floating-point printing/reading functions that are perfectly accurate & much faster than the old code; an `nsswitch.conf' mechanism for versatile name database lookup, paving the way for easy plug-in support of protocols like NIS; and a complete set of internationalization features including POSIX.2-compatible `locale' & `localedef' programs, & catalogs for displaying program messages in languages other than English. (Ulrich presented a paper on his internationalization work at the *Note First Conference on Freely Redistributable Software::; to order a copy of the Proceedings, see the FSF Order Form, in the centerfold). The library now builds as a shared library for systems that use the ELF object file format. Included is the run-time loader (`ld.so') which sets up the shared libraries when a program runs; it works now with the Hurd & Linux kernels, and is easy to port to other ELF systems such as SVR4 & Solaris 2. * GNU Emacs (For current status, *note GNU Software::.) Future versions of Emacs will: save the undo history in a file (which allows you to undo older changes in the history) and also have support for variable-width fonts, wide character sets, and the world's major languages. Our long term plan is to move it in the direction of a WYSIWYG word processor & make it easier for beginners to use. * GNUstep (Also see "Objective-C Library" in *Note GNU Software::) OpenStep is an object-oriented application programming interface specification being proposed as an open object standard. Since its announcement over two years ago, there has been much interest in a GNU implementation, named GNUstep. Work has begun on GNUstep, starting with a library written in Objective-C. Much remains to be done to bring this library close to the OpenStep specifications. Volunteers should contact `email@example.com'. Check `http://www.gnustep.org/' for more info. * `recode' (For current status, *note GNU Software::.) The next `recode' release should give more flexible control over encodings of charsets, offer MIME conversions, & handle ISO-10646 (Unicode). It will install a library & support files to help work towards internationalizing GNU. * GUILE GNU's Ubiquitous Extension Language is an SCM-based library which can be used to make any ordinary C program extensible (for SCM info, see "JACAL" in *Note GNU Software::). Also being developed are a POSIX.1 interface, an SCSH-like library, a module system, a Tk interface, & a byte-code interpreter; support for Emacs Lisp & a more C-like language is coming. * `ptx' (For current status, *note GNU Software::.) The next release of `ptx' should offer contextualized support for SGML texts as the first step towards a major overhaul for that package. * GNU Common Lisp (For current status, *note GNU Software::.) Version 2.2 of GNU Common Lisp (GCL) was released in November '95. It now includes a graphical interface to the Tk widget system. All documentation is now Texinfo-based, with built-in regexp matching used to access the documentation. A first pass at the Common Lisp condition system is also included. Some new ports include DEC Alpha and ELF for GNU/Linux. Volunteers to help with the move to the ANSI standard are most welcome; contact `firstname.lastname@example.org'. * C Interpreter We hope to add interpreter facilities to our compiler and debugger. This task is partly finished. GCC has generated byte code for all supported languages, but that support is in flux at this time. A new effort to finish this work has begun. To make this work usable, we need to enhance GDB to load the byte code dynamically. We would also like support for compiling just a few selected functions in a file. Due to limited resources, the FSF cannot fund this. Interested volunteers should contact `email@example.com'. * GCC (For current status, *note GNU Software::.) New front ends for GCC are being developed for Pascal and Chill. See the Fortran item in this article for news on that front end. See the GNAT item in *Note GNU Software::, for news on GNU Ada. * Fortran (For info on `f2c' & GCC, *note GNU Software::.) The GNU Fortran (`g77') front end is stable, but more work is needed to bring its overall packaging, feature set, and performance up to the levels the Fortran community expects. Tasks to be done include: improving documentation and diagnostics; speeding up compilation, especially for large, densely initialized data tables; completing existing support for `INTEGER*2', `INTEGER*8', and similar features; allowing intrinsics in `PARAMETER' statements; and providing debug information on `COMMON' and `EQUIVALENCE' variables. We don't know when these things will be done, but hope some will be finished in the coming months. You can speed progress by working on them or by offering funding. A mailing list exists for announcements about `g77'. To subscribe, ask `firstname.lastname@example.org'. To contact the developer of `g77' or get current status, write or finger `email@example.com'. * Smalltalk (For current status, *note GNU Software::.) The next release, version 1.2, is planned to use Autoconf. It will have substantial performance improvements & memory requirement reductions, more control over memory allocation, ability to use the Smalltalk interpreter as a C callable library, better X Window System interfaces, ability to represent and manipulate C data structures in Smalltalk, conditional compilation facilities, large integer support, an advanced GUI-based class browsing system, better TCP/IP interfaces, exception support, weak references, & finalization support. It will run on UNIX, DOS, & Windows NT. 1. The Dictionary Project The FSF has a copy of the unabridged `Century Dictionary', now in the public domain, and we are planning to put it online. We tried OCR, but it wasn't reliable enough. Russell Nelson is coordinating the project. Volunteers have entered close to fifty pages so far, but the project needs more help; to volunteer, send mail to `firstname.lastname@example.org' or contact the FSF. GNU Software ************ All our software is available via FTP; see *Note How to Get GNU Software::. We also offer *Note CD-ROMs::, and printed *Note Documentation::, which includes manuals and reference cards. In the articles describing the contents of each medium, the version number listed after each program name was current when we published this Bulletin. When you order a newer CD-ROM, some of the programs may be newer and therefore the version number higher. See the *note Free Software Foundation Order Form::., for ordering information. Some of the contents of our FTP distributions are compressed. We have software on our FTP sites to uncompress these files. Due to patent troubles with `compress', we use another compression program, `gzip'. (Such prohibitions on software development are fought by the League for Programming Freedom; *note What Is the LPF::., for details.) You may need to build GNU `make' before you build our other software. Some vendors supply no `make' utility at all and some native `make' programs lack the `VPATH' feature essential for using the GNU configure system to its full extent. The GNU `make' sources have a shell script to build `make' itself on such systems. We welcome all bug reports and enhancements sent to the appropriate electronic mailing list (*note Free Software Support::.). Configuring GNU Software ------------------------ We are using Autoconf, a uniform scheme for configuring GNU software packages in order to compile them (see "Autoconf" and "Automake" below, in this article). The goal is to have all GNU software support the same alternatives for naming machine and system types. Ultimately, it will be possible to configure and build the entire system all at once, eliminating the need to configure each individual package separately. You can also specify both the host and target system to build cross-compilation tools. Most GNU programs now use Autoconf-generated configure scripts. GNU Software Currently Available -------------------------------- For future programs and features, see *Note Forthcoming GNUs::. Key to cross reference: BinCD December 1995 Binaries CD-ROM SrcCD July 1996 Source CD-ROMs [FSFman] shows that we sell a manual for that package. [FSFrc] shows we sell a reference card for that package. To order them, see the *note Free Software Foundation Order Form::. *Note Documentation::, for more information on the manuals. Source code for each manual or reference card is included with each package. * `acm' (SrcCD) `acm' is a LAN-oriented, multiplayer, aerial combat simulation that runs under the X Window System. Players engage in air to air combat against one another using heat seeking missiles and cannons. We are working on a more accurate simulation of real airplane flight characteristics. * Apache (SrcCD) Apache is an HTTP server designed as a plug-in replacement for version 1.3 or 1.4 of the NCSA server. It fixes many bugs in the NCSA server, includes many frequently requested new features, and has an API which allows it to be extended to meet users' needs more easily. * Autoconf (SrcCD) Autoconf produces shell scripts which automatically configure source code packages. These scripts adapt the packages to many kinds of Unix-like systems without manual user intervention. Autoconf creates a script for a package from a template file which lists the operating system features which the package can use, in the form of `m4' macro calls. Autoconf requires GNU `m4' to operate, but the resulting configure scripts it generates do not. * Automake (SrcCD) Automake is a tool for generating `Makefile.in's for use with Autoconf. The generated makefiles are compliant with GNU Makefile standards. * BASH (SrcCD) GNU's shell, BASH (Bourne Again SHell), is compatible with the Unix `sh' and offers many extensions found in `csh' and `ksh'. BASH has job control, `csh'-style command history, command-line editing (with Emacs and `vi' modes built-in), and the ability to rebind keys via the `readline' library. BASH conforms to the POSIX 1003.2-1992 standard. * `bc' (SrcCD) `bc' is an interactive algebraic language with arbitrary precision numbers. GNU `bc' follows the POSIX 1003.2-1992 standard with several extensions, including multi-character variable names, an `else' statement, and full Boolean expressions. The RPN calculator `dc' is now distributed as part of the same package, but GNU `bc' is not implemented as a `dc' preprocessor. * BFD (BinCD, SrcCD) The Binary File Descriptor library allows a program which operates on object files (e.g., `ld' or GDB) to support many different formats in a clean way. BFD provides a portable interface, so that only BFD needs to know the details of a particular format. One result is that all programs using BFD will support formats such as a.out, COFF, and ELF. BFD comes with Texinfo source for a manual (not yet published on paper). At present, BFD is not distributed separately; it is included with packages that use it. * Binutils (BinCD, SrcCD) Binutils includes these programs: `ar', `c++filt', `demangle', `gas', `gprof', `ld', `nlmconv', `nm', `objcopy', `objdump', `ranlib', `size', `strings', & `strip'. Binutils version 2 uses the BFD library. The GNU assembler, `gas', supports the a29k, Alpha, H8/300, H8/500, HP-PA, i386, i960, m68k, m88k, MIPS, NS32K, SH, SPARC, Tahoe, Vax, and Z8000 CPUs, and attempts to be compatible with many other assemblers for Unix and embedded systems. It can produce mixed C and assembly listings, and includes a macro facility similar to that in some other assemblers. GNU's linker, `ld', emits source-line numbered error messages for multiply-defined symbols and undefined references, and interprets a superset of AT&T's Linker Command Language, which gives control over where segments are placed in memory. `nlmconv' converts object files into Novell NetWare Loadable Modules. `objdump' can disassemble code for most of the CPUs listed above, and can display other data (e.g., symbols and relocations) from any file format read by BFD. * Bison (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc] Bison is an upwardly compatible replacement for the parser generator `yacc'. Texinfo source for the `Bison Manual' and reference card are included; see *Note Documentation::. A recent policy change allows non-free programs to use Bison-generated parsers. * C Library *See *Note Forthcoming GNUs::* (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman] The GNU C library supports ANSI C-1989, POSIX 1003.1-1990 and most of the functions in POSIX 1003.2-1992. It is upwardly compatible with 4.4BSD and includes many System V functions, plus GNU extensions. When used with the GNU Hurd, the C Library performs many functions of the Unix system calls directly. Mike Haertel has written a fast `malloc' which wastes less memory than the old GNU version. The GNU regular-expression functions (`regex' and `rx') now nearly conform to the POSIX 1003.2 standard. GNU `stdio' lets you define new kinds of streams, just by writing a few C functions. The `fmemopen' function uses this to open a stream on a string, which can grow as necessary. You can define your own `printf' formats to use a C function you have written. For example, you can safely use format strings from user input to implement a `printf'-like function for another programming language. Extended `getopt' functions are already used to parse options, including long options, in many GNU utilities. Texinfo source for the `GNU C Library Reference Manual' is included (*note Documentation::.). It runs on Sun-3 (SunOS 4.1), Sun-4 (SunOS 4.1 or Solaris 2), HP 9000/300 (4.3BSD), SONY News 800 (NewsOS 3 or 4), MIPS DECstation (Ultrix 4), DEC Alpha (OSF/1), i386/i486/Pentium (GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, System V, SVR4, BSD, SCO 3.2, & SCO ODT 2.0), Sequent Symmetry i386 (Dynix 3), & SGI (Irix 4). * C++ Library (BinCD, SrcCD) The GNU C++ library (libg++) contains an extensive collection of container and utility classes, including Obstacks, multiple-precision Integers and Rationals, Complex numbers, BitSets, and BitStrings. The distribution also includes the libstdc++ library. This implements library facilities defined by the forthcoming ANSI/ISO C++ standard, including strings, the iostream library, and a port of the Standard Template Library. * Calc (SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc] Calc (written by Dave Gillespie in Emacs Lisp) is an extensible, advanced desk calculator & mathematical tool that runs as part of GNU Emacs. You can use Calc as a simple four-function calculator, but it has many more features including: choice of algebraic or RPN (stack-based) entry; logarithmic, trigonometric, & financial functions; arbitrary precision; complex numbers; vectors; matrices; dates; times; infinities; sets; algebraic simplification; & differentiation & integration. It outputs to `gnuplot', & comes with source for a manual & reference card (*note Documentation::.). * `cfengine' (SrcCD) `cfengine' is used to maintain site-wide configuration of a heterogeneous Unix network using a simple high level language. Its appearance is similar to `rdist', but allows many more operations to be performed automatically. See Mark Burgess, "A Site Configuration Engine", `Computing Systems', Vol. 8, No. 3 (ask `email@example.com' how to get a copy). * Chess (SrcCD) GNU Chess lets most modern computers play a full game of chess. It has a plain terminal interface, a curses interface, & `xboard''s spiffy X Window interface. Recent improvements include fixes to the game analyzer, book, & hash table; smartening up draw & mate; improved thinking on opponent's time; Autoconf installation; a makefile for Windows NT compilation; forward pruning; unlimited quiescence captures; improved evaluation; improved null & time control logic; & repetition-detection. Stuart Cracraft started GNU Chess. Improvements & rewrites are from John Stanback, Cha Kong Sian, Mike McGann, et al. Send bugs to `firstname.lastname@example.org' & general comments to `email@example.com'. * CLISP (SrcCD) CLISP is a Common Lisp implementation by Bruno Haible and Michael Stoll. It mostly supports the Lisp described by `Common LISP: The Language (2nd edition)' and the ANSI Common Lisp standard. CLISP includes an interpreter, a byte-compiler, a large subset of CLOS, a foreign language interface, and, for some machines, a screen editor. The user interface language (English, German, French) can be chosen at run time. Major packages that run in CLISP include CLX & Garnet. CLISP needs only 2 MB of memory & runs on many microcomputers (including MS-DOS systems, OS/2, Windows NT, Amiga 500-4000, and Acorn RISC PC) & Unix-like systems (GNU/Linux, Sun4, SVR4, SGI, HP-UX, DEC Alpha, NeXTStep, & others). * Common Lisp *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.* (SrcCD) GNU Common Lisp (GCL, formerly known as Kyoto Common Lisp) is a compiler & interpreter for Common Lisp. GCL is very portable & extremely efficient on a wide class of applications, & compares favorably in performance with commercial Lisps on several large theorem-prover & symbolic algebra systems. GCL supports the CLtL1 specification but is moving towards the proposed ANSI standard. GCL compiles to C & then uses the native optimizing C compiler (e.g., GCC). A function with a fixed number of args & one value turns into a C function of the same number of args, returning one value--so GCL is maximally efficient on such calls. Its conservative garbage collector gives great freedom to the C compiler to put Lisp values in registers. It has a source level Lisp debugger for interpreted code & displays source code in an Emacs window. Its profiler (based on the C profiling tools) counts function calls & the time spent in each function. There is now a built-in interface to the Tk widget system. It runs in a separate process, so users may monitor progress on Lisp computations or interact with running computations via a windowing interface. There is also an Xlib interface via C (xgcl-2). CLX runs with GCL, as does PCL (see "PCL" later in this article). GCL version 2.2 is released under the GNU Library General Public License. * CLX (SrcCD) CLX is an X Window interface library for GCL. This is separate from the built-in TK interface. * `cpio' (SrcCD) `cpio' is an archive program with all the features of SVR4 `cpio', including support for the final POSIX 1003.1 `ustar' standard. `mt', a program to position magnetic tapes, is included with `cpio'. * CVS (SrcCD) CVS is a version control system (like RCS or SCCS) which allows you to keep old versions of files (usually source code), keep a log of who, when, and why changes occurred, etc. It handles multiple developers, multiple directories, triggers to enable/log/control various operations, and can work over a wide area network. It does not handle build management or bug-tracking; these are handled by `make' and GNATS, respectively. * DejaGnu (SrcCD) DejaGnu is a framework to test programs with a single front end for all tests. DejaGnu's flexibility & consistency makes it easy to write tests. DejaGnu comes with `expect', which runs scripts to conduct dialogs with programs. * Diffutils (SrcCD) GNU `diff' compares files showing line-by-line changes in several flexible formats. It is much faster than traditional Unix versions. The Diffutils package contains `diff', `diff3', `sdiff', & `cmp'. Recent improvements include more consistent handling of character sets and a new `diff' option to do all input/output in binary; this is useful on some non-POSIX hosts. Plans for the Diffutils package include support for internationalization (e.g., error messages in Chinese) and for some non-Unix PC environments. * DJGPP (BinCD) DJ Delorie has ported GCC/G++ (see "GCC" in this article) to i386s running MS-DOS. DJGPP has a 32-bit i386 DOS extender with a symbolic debugger, development libraries, & ports of Bison, `flex', & Binutils. Full source code is provided. It needs at least 5MB of hard disk space to install & 512K of RAM to use. It supports SVGA (up to 1024x768), XMS & VDISK memory allocation, `himem.sys', VCPI (e.g., QEMM, DESQview, & 386MAX), & DPMI (e.g., Windows 3.x, OS/2, QEMM, & QDPMI). DJGPP Version 2 was released in Feb 1996, & needs a DPMI environment; a free DPMI server is included. FTP from `ftp.simtel.net' in `/pub/simtelnet/gnu/djgpp/' (or another SimTel mirror site). Ask `firstname.lastname@example.org', to join a DJGPP users mailing list. * `dld' (SrcCD) `dld' is a dynamic linker written by W. Wilson Ho. Linking your program with the `dld' library allows you to dynamically load object files into the running binary. `dld' supports a.out object types on the following platforms: Convex C-Series (BSD), i386/i486/Pentium (Linux), Sequent Symmetry i386 (Dynix 3), Sun-3 (SunOS 3 & 4), Sun-4 (SunOS 4), & VAX (Ultrix). * `doschk' (SrcCD) This program is a utility to help software developers ensure that their source file names are distinguishable on System V platforms with 14-character filenames and on MS-DOS systems with 8+3 character filenames. * `ecc' (SrcCD) `ecc' is a Reed-Solomon error correction checking library and sample program, which can correct three byte errors in a block of 255 bytes and detect more severe errors. Contact `email@example.com' for more information. * `ed' (SrcCD) `ed' is the standard text editor. It is line-oriented and can be used interactively or in scripts. * Elib (SrcCD) Elib is a small library of Emacs Lisp functions, including routines for using AVL trees and doubly-linked lists. * Elisp archive (SrcCD) This is a snapshot of Ohio State's GNU Emacs Lisp FTP Archive. FTP it from `archive.cis.ohio-state.edu' in `/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive'. * Emacs *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.* [FSFman(s), FSFrc] In 1975, Richard Stallman developed the first Emacs, an extensible, customizable real-time display editor & computing environment. GNU Emacs is his second implementation. It offers true Lisp--smoothly integrated into the editor--for writing extensions & provides an interface to the X Window System. It runs on Unix, MS-DOS, & Windows NT or 95. In addition to its powerful native command set, Emacs can emulate the editors vi & EDT (Digital's VMS editor). Emacs has many other features which make it a full computing support environment. Source for the `GNU Emacs Manual' & a reference card comes with the software. Sources for the `GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual', & `Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction' are distributed in separate packages. *Note Documentation::. * Emacs 19 (SrcCD) [FSFman(s), FSFrc] Emacs 19 works with character-only terminals & with the X Window System (with or without an X toolkit). New Emacs 19 features include: multiple X windows ("frames" to Emacs), with a separate X window for the minibuffer or a minibuffer attached to each X window; use of the X toolkit; interfacing with the X resource manager; property lists associated with regions of text in a buffer; multiple fonts & colors defined by those properties; simplified/improved processing of function keys, mouse movement & clicks; X selection processing, including clipboard selections; hooks to be run if the point or mouse moves outside a certain range; menu bars & popup menus defined by keymaps; scrollbars; before- & after-change hooks; a source-level debugger for Emacs Lisp programs; floating point numbers; improved buffer allocation, including returning storage to the system when a buffer is killed; many updated libraries; Autoconf-based configuration; support for version control systems (CVS, RCS, & SCCS); & European character sets. Recent features include the ability to open frames on more than one X display from a single Emacs job, operation under MS-DOS, MS Windows, and Windows NT, displaying multiple views of an outline at the same time, Lisp-level timers for real time and idle time, version control support for CVS and for multiple branches, text properties for formatting text, commands to edit text properties and save them in files, and GNU-standard long-named command line options. Also see *Note Forthcoming GNUs::. Emacs 19.32 works on: Acorn RISC (RISCiX); Alliant FX/2800 (BSD); Alpha (OSF/1 or GNU/Linux); Apollo (DomainOS); Bull DPX/2 2nn & 3nn (SysV.3) & sps7 (SysV.2); Clipper; Convex (BSD); Cubix QBx (SysV); Data General Aviion (DGUX); DEC MIPS (Ultrix 4.2, OSF/1, not VMS); Elxsi 6400 (SysV); Gould Power Node & NP1 (4.2 & 4.3BSD); Harris Night Hawk 1200, 3000, 4000 & 5000 (cxux); Harris Night Hawk Power PC (powerunix); Honeywell XPS100 (SysV); HP 9000 series 200, 300, 700, 800 (but not 500) (4.3BSD; HP-UX 7, 8, 9; NextStep); Intel i386/i486/Pentium (GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, 386BSD, AIX, BSDI/386, FreeBSD, Esix, ISC, MS-DOS, NetBSD, SCO3.2v4, Solaris, SysV, Xenix, WindowsNT, Windows95); IBM RS/6000 (AIX 3.2) & RT/PC (AIX, BSD); Motorola Delta 147 & 187 (SysV.3, SysV.4, m88kbcs); National Semiconductor 32K (Genix); NeXT (BSD, Mach 2 w/ NeXTStep 3.0); Paragon (OSF/1); Prime EXL (SysV); Pyramid (BSD); Sequent Symmetry (BSD, ptx); Siemens RM400 & RM600 (SysV); SGI Iris 4D (Irix 4.x & 5.x); Sony News/RISC (NewsOS); Stardent i860 (SysV); Sun 3 & 4, SPARC 1, 1+, 2, 10, Classic (SunOS 4.0, 4.1, Solaris 2.0-2.3); Tadpole 68k (SysV); Tektronix XD88 (SysV.3) & 4300 (BSD); & Titan P2 & P3 (SysV). * Emacs 18 (SrcCD) [FSFrc] Emacs 18 is several years old. We no longer maintain it, but still distribute it for those using platforms which Emacs 19 does not support: Alliant FX/80, Altos 3068, Amdahl (UTS), AT&T (3Bs & 7300 PC), CCI 5/32 & 6/32, Celerity, Digital (VAX VMS), Dual, Encore (APC, DPC, & XPC), HLH Orion (original & 1/05), ISI (Optimum V, 80386), Masscomp, NCR Tower 32 (SVR2 & SVR3), Nixdorf Targon 31, Nu (TI & LMI), pfa50, Plexus, Prime EXL, Stride (system rel. 2), Tahoe, Tandem Integrity S2, Tektronix 16000, Triton 88, Ustation E30 (SS5E), Whitechapel (MG1), & Wicat. * `es' (SrcCD) `es' is an extensible shell (based on `rc') with first-class functions, lexical scope, exceptions, and rich return values (i.e., functions can return values other than just numbers). `es''s extensibility comes from the ability to modify and extend the shell's built-in services, such as path searching and redirection. Like `rc', it is great for both interactive use and scripting, particularly since its quoting rules are much less baroque than the C and Bourne shells. * `enscript' (SrcCD) `enscript' is an upwardly-compatible replacement for the Adobe `enscript' program. It formats ASCII files (outputting in Postscript) and stores generated output to a file or sends it directly to the printer. * Exim (SrcCD) Exim is a new, somewhat experimental mail transfer agent, patterned after some of the lessons learned during the development of Smail. Exim can handle relatively high volume mail systems, caching of mail delivery, header rewriting, multiple local domains from one mail system, and control over which hosts/nets may use it as a relay. * `f2c' (SrcCD) `f2c' converts Fortran-77 source into C or C++, which can be compiled with GCC or G++. Get bug fixes by FTP from site `netlib.bell-labs.com' or by email from `firstname.lastname@example.org'. For a summary, see the file `/netlib/f2c/readme.Z'. Also see the Fortran items later in this article, and in *Note Forthcoming GNUs::. * `ffcall' (SrcCD) `ffcall' is a C library for implementing foreign function calls in embedded interpreters by Bill Triggs and Bruno Haible. It allows C functions with arbitrary argument lists and return types to be called or emulated (callbacks). * Fileutils (SrcCD) The Fileutils are: `chgrp', `chmod', `chown', `cp', `dd', `df', `dir', `dircolors', `du', `install', `ln', `ls', `mkdir', `mkfifo', `mknod', `mv', `rm', `rmdir', `sync', `touch', & `vdir'. * Findutils (SrcCD) `find' is frequently used both interactively and in shell scripts to find files which match certain criteria and perform arbitrary operations on them. Also included are `locate', which scans a database for file names that match a pattern, and `xargs', which applies a command to a list of files. * Finger (SrcCD) GNU Finger has more features than other finger programs. For sites with many hosts, a single host may be designated as the finger "server" host and other hosts at that site configured as finger "clients". The server host collects information about who is logged in on the clients. To finger a user at a GNU Finger site, a query to any of its client hosts gets useful information. GNU Finger supports many customization features, including user output filters and site-programmable output for special target names. * `flex' (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc] `flex' is a replacement for the `lex' scanner generator. `flex' was written by Vern Paxson of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and generates far more efficient scanners than `lex' does. Sources for the `Flex Manual' and reference card are included (*note Documentation::.). * Fortran (`g77') *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.* (SrcCD) GNU Fortran (`g77'), developed by Craig Burley, is available for public beta testing on the Internet. For now, `g77' produces code that is mostly object-compatible with `f2c' & uses the same run-time library (`libf2c'). * Fontutils (SrcCD) The Fontutils convert between font formats, create fonts for use with Ghostscript or TeX (starting with a scanned type image & converting the bitmaps to outlines), etc. It includes: `bpltobzr', `bzrto', `charspace', `fontconvert', `gsrenderfont', `imageto', `imgrotate', `limn', & `xbfe'. * GAWK (SrcCD) [FSFman] GAWK is upwardly compatible with the latest POSIX specification of `awk'. It also provides several useful extensions not found in other `awk' implementations. Texinfo source for the `The GNU Awk User's Guide' comes with the software (*note Documentation::.). * `gcal' (SrcCD) `gcal' is a program for printing calendars. It displays different styled calendar sheets, eternal holiday lists, and fixed date warning lists. * GCC *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.* (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman] Version 2 of the GNU C Compiler supports the languages C, C++, and Objective-C; the source file name suffix or a compiler option selects the language. Objective-C support was donated by NeXT. The runtime support needed to run Objective-C programs is now distributed with GCC (this does not include any Objective-C classes aside from `object', but see "GNUstep" in *Note Forthcoming GNUs::). As much as possible, G++ is kept compatible with the evolving draft ANSI standard, but not with `cfront' (AT&T's compiler), which has been diverging from ANSI. GCC is a fairly portable optimizing compiler which performs automatic register allocation, common sub-expression elimination (CSE) (including a certain amount of CSE between basic blocks - though not all the supported machine descriptions provide for scheduling or delay slots), invariant code motion from loops, induction variable optimizations, constant propagation, copy propagation, delayed popping of function call arguments, tail recursion elimination, integration of inline functions & frame pointer elimination, instruction scheduling, loop unrolling, filling of delay slots, leaf function optimization, optimized multiplication by constants, the ability to assign attributes to instructions, & many local optimizations automatically deduced from the machine description. GCC can open-code most arithmetic on 64-bit values (type `long long int'). It supports extended floating point (type `long double') on the 68k; other machines will follow. GCC supports full ANSI C, traditional C, & GNU C extensions (including: nested functions support, nonlocal gotos, & taking the address of a label). GCC can generate a.out, COFF, ELF, & OSF-Rose files when used with a suitable assembler. It can produce debugging information in these formats: BSD stabs, COFF, ECOFF, ECOFF with stabs, & DWARF. GCC generates code for many CPUs, including the a29k, Alpha, ARM, AT&T, DSP1610, Clipper, Convex cN, Elxsi, Fujitsu Gmicro, i370, i860, i960, MIL-STD-1750a, MIPS, ns32k, PDP-11, Pyramid, ROMP, RS/6000, SH, SPUR, Tahoe, VAX, & we32k. Position-independent code is generated for the Clipper, Hitachi H8/300, HP-PA (1.0 & 1.1), i386/i486/Pentium, m68k, m88k, SPARC, & SPARClite. Operating systems supported include: GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, ACIS, AIX, AOS, BSD, Clix, Concentrix, Ctix, DG/UX, Dynix, FreeBSD, Genix, HP-UX, Irix, ISC, Luna, LynxOS, Minix, NetBSD, NewsOS, NeXTStep, OS/2, OSF, OSF-Rose, RISCOS, SCO, Solaris 2, SunOS 4, System/370, SysV, Ultrix, Unos, VMS, & Windows/NT. Using the configuration scheme for GCC, building a cross-compiler is as easy as building a native compiler. Version 1 of GCC, G++, & libg++ are no longer maintained. Texinfo source for the `Using and Porting GNU CC' manual is included with GCC (*note Documentation::.). * GDB (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc] GDB, the GNU DeBugger, is a source-level debugger for C, C++, and Fortran. GDB can debug both C and C++ programs, and will work with executables produced by many different compilers; however, C++ debugging will have some limitations if you do not use GCC. GDB has a command line user interface, and Emacs has GDB mode as an interface. Two X interfaces (not distributed or maintained by the FSF) are: `gdbtk' (FTP it from `ftp.cygnus.com' in directory `/pub/gdb'); and `xxgdb' (FTP it from `ftp.x.org' in directory `/contrib/utilities'). Executable files and symbol tables are read via the BFD library, which allows a single copy of GDB to debug programs with multiple object file formats (e.g., a.out, COFF, ELF). Other features include a rich command language, remote debugging over serial lines or TCP/IP, and watchpoints (breakpoints triggered when the value of an expression changes). GDB uses a standard remote interface to a simulator library which (so far) has simulators for the ARM, Hitachi H8/300, Hitachi H8/500, Hitachi Super-H, PowerPC, WDC 65816, & Zilog Z8001/2. GDB can perform cross-debugging. To say that GDB "targets" a platform means it can perform native or cross-debugging for it. To say that GDB can "host" a given platform means that it can be built on it, but cannot necessarily debug native programs. GDB can: * "target" & "host": Amiga 3000 (Amix, NetBSD), DEC Alpha (OSF/1), DECstation 3100 & 5000 (Ultrix), HP 9000/300 (BSD, HP-UX), HP 9000/700 (HP-UX 9, 10), i386 (GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, BSD, FreeBSD, LynxOS, NetBSD, SCO, Windows NT), IBM RS/6000 (AIX 3.x, AIX 4.x, LynxOS), Motorola Delta m88k (System V, CX/UX), PC532 (NetBSD), Motorola m68k MVME-167 (LynxOS), NCR 3000 (SVR4), PowerPC (AIX 4.x, MacOS, Windows NT), SGI (Irix V3, V4, V5), SONY News (NewsOS 3.x), SPARC (LynxOS, NetBSD, Solaris 2.x, & SunOS 4.1 ) Sun-3 (SunOS 4.1), & Ultracomputer (a29k running Sym1). * "target", but not "host": AMD 29000 (COFF & a.out), ARM (RDP), Hitachi H8/300, Hitachi SH (CMON, SH3, E7000), HP PA Pro (Winbond, Oki), i386 (a.out, COFF, OS/9000), i960 (MON960, Nindy, VxWorks), m68k/m68332 (a.out, COFF, CPU32BUG, EST, ROM68K, VxWorks), MIPS (ELF, IDT ecoff, PMON, VxWorks), PowerPC (PPCBug), Matra Sparclet, Fujitsu SPARClite (a.out, COFF), WDC 65816, & Z8000. * "host", but not "target": IBM RT/PC (AIX), HP/Apollo 68k (BSD), & m68k Apple Macintosh (MacOS). Sources for the manual, `Debugging with GDB', and a reference card are included (*note Documentation::.). * `gdbm' (SrcCD) `gdbm' is the GNU replacement for the traditional `dbm' and `ndbm' libraries. It implements a database using quick lookup by hashing. `gdbm' does not ordinarily make sparse files (unlike its Unix and BSD counterparts). * `gettext' *Also *note Help the GNU Translation Project::.* (SrcCD) The GNU `gettext' tool set has everything maintainers need to internationalize a package's user messages. Once a package has been internationalized, `gettext''s many tools help translators localize messages to their native language and automate handling the translation files. * Generic NQS (SrcCD) Generic NQS is a network queuing system for spreading batch jobs across a network of machines. It is designed to be simple to install on a heterogeneous network of machines, and has optimizations for running on the high end, symmetric multiprocessing servers that are currently on the market. It inter-operates with other NQS systems, including Cray's NQE. * `geomview' (SrcCD) `geomview' is an interactive geometry viewing program. It allows multiple independently controllable objects and cameras. `geomview' provides interactive control for motion, appearances (including lighting, shading, and materials), picking on an object, edge or vertex level, and snapshots in SGI image file or Renderman RIB format. Adding or deleting objects is provided through direct mouse manipulation, control panels, and keyboard shortcuts. External programs can drive desired aspects of the viewer (such as continually loading changing geometry or controlling the motion of certain objects) while allowing interactive control of everything else. * Ghostscript *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.* (SrcCD) Ghostscript is an interpreter for the Postscript and PDF graphics languages. The current version of GNU Ghostscript is 3.33. This version includes nearly a full Postscript Level 2 interpreter and also a PDF 1.0 interpreter. Significant new features include: support for anti-aliased characters; the ability to scan a directory and register all the fonts in it; support for Type 0 (Japanese / Chinese / Korean) fonts; and the ability to compile all the external initialization files into the executable. This version can also run as a 32-bit MS Windows application. Thanks to the generosity of URW++ (Hamburg, Germany), the low-quality bitmap-derived fonts distributed with older versions have been replaced with commercial-quality, hinted outline fonts. *Note GNUs Flashes::. Ghostscript executes commands in the Postscript language by writing directly to a printer, drawing on an X window, or writing to files for printing later or manipulating with other graphics programs. Ghostscript includes a C-callable graphics library (for client programs that do not want to deal with the Postscript language). It also supports i386/i486/Pentiums running DOS with EGA, VGA or SuperVGA graphics (but please do *not* ask the FSF staff any questions about this; we do not use DOS). * Ghostview (SrcCD) Tim Theisen, `email@example.com', created Ghostview, a previewer for multi-page files with an X Window interface. Ghostview & Ghostscript work together; Ghostview creates a viewing window & Ghostscript draws in it. * GIT (SrcCD) The GNU Interactive Tools package includes: an extensible file system browser, an ASCII/hex file viewer, a process viewer/killer, & other related utilities & shell scripts. It can be used to increase the speed & efficiency of many daily tasks, such as copying & moving files & directories, invoking editors, compressing/uncompressing files, creating & expanding archives, compiling programs, sending mail, etc. It looks nice, has colors (if the standard ANSI color sequences are supported), & is user-friendly. * `gmp' (SrcCD) GNU `mp' is a library for arithmetic on arbitrary precision integers, rational numbers, and floating-point numbers. It has a rich set of functions with a regular interface. A major new release, version 2.0, is now out. Compared to previous versions, it is much faster, & contains lots of new functions. The main new feature is support for arbitrary precision floating-point numbers. * Gnans (SrcCD) Gnans is a program (and language) for the numerical study of deterministic and stochastic dynamical systems. The dynamical systems may evolve in continuous or discrete time. Gnans has graphical & command line interfaces. * GNAT: The GNU Ada Translator (SrcCD) A front end for much of Ada 95 (GNAT: The GNU Ada Translator) is available via anonymous FTP from `cs.nyu.edu' in `/pub/gnat'. SGI and Digital have chosen GNU Ada as the Ada compiler for certain systems. News about GNAT is posted to the USENET newsgroup `comp.lang.ada'. * GNATS (SrcCD) GNATS (GNats: A Tracking System, not to be confused with GNAT, The GNU Ada Translator) is a bug-tracking system. It is based upon the paradigm of a central site or organization which receives problem reports and negotiates their resolution by electronic mail. Although it has been used primarily as a software bug-tracking system so far, it is sufficiently generalized that it could be used for handling system administration issues, project management, or any number of other applications. * GNUMATH (`gnussl') (SrcCD) GNUMATH is a library (`gnussl') designed to simplify scientific programming. Its focus is on problems that can be solved by a straight-forward application of numerical, linear algebra. It also handles plotting. GNUMATH is in beta release; it is expected to grow more versatile and offer a wider scope in time. * `gnuplot' (SrcCD) `gnuplot' is an interactive program for plotting mathematical expressions and data. It plots both curves (2 dimensions) & surfaces (3 dimensions). It was neither written nor named for the GNU Project; the name is a coincidence. Various GNU programs use `gnuplot'. * `gnuserv' (SrcCD) `gnuserv' is an enhanced version of Emacs' `emacsclient' program. It lets the user direct a running Emacs to edit files or evaluate arbitrary Emacs Lisp constructs from another process. * GnuGo (SrcCD) GnuGo plays the game of Go (Wei-Chi); version 1.2 was released with minor changes for portability, but it is not yet very sophisticated. * `gperf' (SrcCD) `gperf' generates perfect hash tables. The C version is in package cperf. The C++ version is in libg++. Both produce hash functions in either C or C++. * Graphics (SrcCD) GNU Graphics produces x-y plots from ASCII or binary data. It outputs in Postscript, Tektronix 4010 compatible, and Unix device-independent "plot" formats. It has a previewer for the X Window System. Features include a `spline' interpolation program; examples of shell scripts using `graph' and `plot'; a statistics toolkit; and output in TekniCAD TDA and ln03 file formats. Email bugs or queries to Rich Murphey, `Rich@lamprey.utmb.edu'. * grep (SrcCD) This package has GNU `grep', `egrep', and `fgrep', which find lines that match entered patterns. They are much faster than the traditional Unix versions. * Groff (SrcCD) Groff is a document formatting system based on a device-independent version of `troff', & includes: `eqn', `nroff', `pic', `refer', `tbl', `troff'; the `man', `ms', & `mm' macros; & drivers for Postscript, TeX `dvi' format, the LaserJet 4 series of printers, and typewriter-like devices. Groff's `mm' macro package is almost compatible with the DWB `mm' macros with several extensions. Also included is a modified version of the Berkeley `me' macros and an enhanced version of the X11 `xditview' previewer. Written in C++, these programs can be compiled with GNU C++ Version 2.7.2 or later. Groff users are encouraged to contribute enhancements. Most needed are complete Texinfo documentation, a `grap' emulation (a `pic' preprocessor for typesetting graphs), a page-makeup postprocessor similar to `pm' (see `Computing Systems', Vol. 2, No. 2; ask `firstname.lastname@example.org' how to get a copy), and an ASCII output class for `pic' to integrate `pic' with Texinfo. Questions and bug reports from users who have read the documentation provided with Groff can be sent to `email@example.com'. * `gzip' (SrcCD) `gzip' can expand LZW-compressed files but uses another, unpatented algorithm for compression which generally produces better results. It also expands files compressed with System V's `pack' program. * `hello' (SrcCD) The GNU `hello' program produces a familiar, friendly greeting. It allows non-programmers to use a classic computer science tool which would otherwise be unavailable to them. Because it is protected by the GNU General Public License, users are free to share and change it. `hello' is also a good example of a program that meets the GNU coding standards. Like any truly useful program, `hello' contains a built-in mail reader. * `hp2xx' (SrcCD) GNU `hp2xx' reads HP-GL files, decomposes all drawing commands into elementary vectors, and converts them into a variety of vector and raster output formats. It is also an HP-GL previewer. Currently supported vector formats include encapsulated Postscript, Uniplex RGIP, Metafont, various special TeX-related formats, and simplified HP-GL (line drawing only) for imports. Raster formats supported include IMG, PBM, PCX, & HP-PCL (including Deskjet & DJ5xxC support). Previewers work under X11 (Unix), OS/2 (PM & full screen), & MS-DOS (SVGA, VGA, & HGC). * HylaFAX (SrcCD) HylaFAX (once named FlexFAX) is a facsimile system for Unix systems. It supports sending, receiving, & polled retrieval of facsimile, as well as transparent shared data use of the modem. Details are available on the World Wide Web at: `http://www.vix.com/hylafax/'. * Hyperbole (SrcCD) Hyperbole, written by Bob Weiner in Emacs Lisp, is an open, efficient, programmable information management & hypertext system, intended for everyday work on any platform supported by Emacs. * ID Utils (SrcCD) ID Utils is a package of simple, fast, high-capacity, language-independent identifier database tools. Actually, the term "identifier" is too limiting - ID Utils stores tokens, be they program identifiers of any form, literal numbers, or words of human-readable text. Database queries can be issued from the command-line, or from within Emacs, serving as an augmented tags facility. * `indent' (SrcCD) GNU `indent' formats C source code into the GNU indentation style. It also has options to output BSD, K&R, or your own special style. GNU `indent' is more robust & provides more functionality than other such programs, including handling C++ comments. It runs on a number of systems, including DOS & VMS. The next version will also format C++ source code. * Inetutils (SrcCD) Inetutils is an interim distribution of common networking utilities and servers. This release is intended mainly to support the GNU Hurd, which is source compatible with BSD in many ways, and will probably only work on systems that are similarly compatible. * Ispell (SrcCD) Ispell is an interactive spell checker that suggests "near misses" to replace unrecognized words. System & user-maintained dictionaries for multiple languages can be used. Standalone & Emacs interfaces are available. * JACAL *Not available from the FSF except by FTP* JACAL is a symbolic mathematics system for the manipulation and simplification of algebraic equations and expressions. It is written in Scheme using the SLIB portable Scheme Library. JACAL comes with SCM, an IEEE P1178 & R4RS compliant Scheme implementation written in C. SCM runs on Amiga, Atari-ST, MS-DOS, OS/2, NOS/VE, Unicos, VMS, Unix, & similar systems. New in JACAL is multivariate factoring from Michael Thomas `(firstname.lastname@example.org)'. See JACAL's documentation at `http://www-swiss.ai.mit.edu/~jaffer/JACAL.html'. The FSF is not distributing JACAL on any physical media. You can FTP it or get it from the Web site listed above. * Karma (SrcCD) Karma is a signal and image processing library that provides interprocess communications, authentication, graphics display, and user interface to and manipulation of the Karma network data structure. Several foreign data formats are also supported. Karma comes packaged with a number of standard tools, including a general-purpose image/movie display tool and a volume rendering tool. * `less' (SrcCD) `less' is a display paginator similar to `more' and `pg', but with various features (such as the ability to scroll backwards) that most pagers lack. * Lynx (SrcCD) Lynx is a text-based World Wide Web browser for people running under "dumb" character-only terminals. For more information about Lynx, consult the URL `http://www.ukans.edu/'. * `m4' (SrcCD) GNU `m4' is an implementation of the traditional Unix macro processor. It is mostly SVR4 compatible, although it has some extensions (e.g., handling more than 9 positional parameters to macros). `m4' also has built-in functions for including files, running shell commands, doing arithmetic, etc. * `make' *See *Note Forthcoming GNUs::* (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman] GNU `make' supports POSIX 1003.2 and has all but a few obscure features of the BSD and System V versions of `make', and runs on MS-DOS, AmigaDOS, VMS, & Windows NT or 95, as well as all Unix-compatible systems. GNU extensions include long options, parallel compilation, flexible implicit pattern rules, conditional execution, & powerful text manipulation functions. Source for the `Make Manual' comes with the program (*note Documentation::.). * MandelSpawn (SrcCD) A parallel Mandelbrot generation program for the X Window System. * Maxima (SrcCD) Maxima is a Common Lisp implementation of MIT's Macsyma system for computer based algebra. * Midnight Commander (`mc') (SrcCD) The Midnight Commander is a user friendly & colorful Unix file manager & shell, useful to novice & guru alike. It has a built-in virtual file system that manipulates files inside tar files or files on remote machines using the FTP protocol. This mechanism is extendable with external Unix programs. * Miscellaneous Files Distribution (SrcCD) The GNU Miscellaneous Files Distribution includes non-crucial files which have come to be common on various systems over the years, including word lists, airport codes, ZIP codes and more. * `mkisofs' (SrcCD) `mkisofs' is a pre-mastering program to generate an ISO 9660 file system. It takes a snapshot of a directory tree, and makes a binary image which corresponds to an ISO 9660 file system when written to a block device. It can also generate the System Use Sharing Protocol records of the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (used to further describe the files in an ISO 9660 file system to a Unix host; it provides information such as longer filenames, uid/gid, permissions, and device nodes). The `mkisofs' program is frequently used with `cdwrite'. `cdwrite' works by taking the image that `mkisofs' generates and driving a cdwriter to actually burn the disk. `cdwrite' works under Linux, and supports popular cdwriters. Older versions of `cdwrite' were included with older versions of `mkisofs'; check `sunsite.unc.edu' & get `/pub/Linux/utils/disk-management/cdwrite-2.0.tar.gz' for the latest version. * `mtools' (SrcCD) `mtools' is a set of public domain programs to allow Unix systems to read, write, and manipulate files on an MS-DOS file system (usually a diskette). * MULE (SrcCD) MULE is a MULtilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs. MULE text buffers can contain a mix of characters from many languages including: Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Thai, modern European languages (including Greek & Russian), Arabic, & Hebrew. MULE also provides input methods for all of them. MULE is being merged into GNU Emacs. *Note GNU & Other Free Software in Japan::, for more information about MULE. * `ncurses' (SrcCD) `ncurses' is an implementation of the Unix `curses' library for developing screen-based programs that are terminal independent. * NetHack (SrcCD) NetHack is a Rogue-like adventure game supporting character & X displays. * NIH Class Library (SrcCD) The NIH Class Library (once known as "OOPS", Object-Oriented Program Support) is a portable collection of C++ classes (similar to those in Smalltalk-80) written in C++ by Keith Gorlen of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). * `nvi' (SrcCD) `nvi' is a freely redistributable implementation of the `vi'/`ex' Unix editor. It has almost all the functionality of the original `vi'/`ex', except "open" mode & the `lisp' option. Enhancements include multiple buffers, command-line editing & path completion, integrated Perl5 & Tcl scripting languages, Cscope support & tag stacks, 8-bit data support, infinite file/line lengths, infinite undo, message catalogs, incremental search, and extended regular expressions. It uses Autoconf for configuration and runs on any Unix-like system. * Oaklisp (SrcCD) Oaklisp is a fast, portable, object-oriented Scheme with first class types. * Objective-C Library *See "GNUstep" in *Note Forthcoming GNUs::* (SrcCD) Our Objective-C Class Library (`gstep-base.tar.gz', `libgnustep-base') has general-purpose, non-graphical Objective-C objects written by Andrew McCallum & other volunteers. It includes collection classes for maintaining groups of objects, I/O streams, coders for formatting objects & C types to streams, ports for network packet transmission, distributed objects (remote object messaging), string classes, invocations, notifications, event loops, timers, exceptions, pseudo-random number generators, & time handling facilities. It has the base classes for the GNUstep project; over 80 of them have already been written. Send queries & bugs to `email@example.com'. * OBST (SrcCD) OBST is a persistent object management system with bindings to C++. OBST supports incremental loading of methods. Its graphical tools require the X Window System. It features a hands-on tutorial including sample programs. It compiles with G++, and should install easily on most Unix platforms. * Octave (SrcCD) Octave is a high-level language similar to MATLAB, primarily intended for numerical computations. It has a convenient command line interface for solving linear & nonlinear problems numerically. Octave does arithmetic for real and complex scalars and matrices, solves sets of nonlinear algebraic equations, integrates systems of ordinary differential & differential-algebraic equations, and integrates functions over finite & infinite intervals. Two- & three-dimensional plotting is available using `gnuplot'. Send queries & bugs to: `firstname.lastname@example.org'. Texinfo source is included for a 220+ page Octave manual, not yet published by the FSF. * Oleo (SrcCD) Oleo is a spreadsheet program (better for you than the more expensive spreadsheets). It supports the X Window System and character-based terminals, and can output Embedded Postscript renditions of spreadsheets. Keybindings should be familiar to Emacs users and are configurable. Oleo supports multiple variable-width fonts when used under the X Window System or outputting to Postscript devices. * `p2c' (SrcCD) `p2c' is Dave Gillespie's Pascal-to-C translator. It inputs many dialects (HP, ISO, Turbo, VAX, etc.) & generates readable, maintainable, portable C. * `patch' (SrcCD) `patch' is our version of Larry Wall's program to take `diff''s output and apply those differences to an original file to generate the modified version. * PCL (SrcCD) PCL is a free implementation of a large subset of CLOS, the Common Lisp Object System. It runs under both GCL and CLISP, mentioned above. * `perl' (SrcCD) Larry Wall's `perl' combines the features & capabilities of C, `sed', `awk', & `sh', and provides interfaces to the Unix system calls & many C library routines. * `pine' *Also *note Some Bad News about Pine::.* (SrcCD) `pine' is a friendly menu-driven electronic mail manager and user interface . * `ptx' *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.* (SrcCD) GNU `ptx' is our version of the traditional permuted index generator. It handles multiple input files at once, has TeX compatible output, & outputs readable "KWIC" (KeyWords In Context) indexes without using `nroff'. It does not yet handle input files that do not fit in memory all at once. * `rc' (SrcCD) `rc' is a shell that features a C-like syntax (much more so than `csh') and far cleaner quoting rules than the C or Bourne shells. It's intended to be used interactively, but is also great for writing scripts. It inspired the shell `es'. * RCS (SrcCD) RCS, the Revision Control System, is used for version control & management of software projects. Used with GNU `diff', RCS can handle binary files (8-bit data, executables, object files, etc). RCS now conforms to GNU configuration standards & to POSIX 1003.1b-1993. Also see the CVS item above. * `recode' *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.* (SrcCD) GNU `recode' converts files between character sets and usages. When exact transliterations are not possible, it may delete the offending characters or fall back on approximations. This program recognizes or outputs nearly 150 different character sets and is able to transliterate files between almost any pair. Most RFC 1345 character sets are supported. * `regex' (SrcCD) The GNU regular expression library supports POSIX.2, except for internationalization features. It is included in many GNU programs which do regular expression matching & is available separately. An alternate regular expression package, `rx', is faster than `regex' in most cases & will replace `regex' over time. * `rx' (SrcCD) Tom Lord has written `rx', a new regular expression library which is faster than the older GNU `regex' library. It is now being distributed with `sed' and `tar'. `rx' will be used in the next releases of `m4' and `ptx'. * SAOimage (SrcCD) SAOimage is an X-based astronomical image viewer. It reads data images and displays them with a pseudocolor colormap. There is full interactive control of the colormap, reading, and writing of colormaps, etc. * Scheme (SrcCD) Scheme is a simplified, lexically-scoped dialect of Lisp. It was designed at MIT and other universities to teach students the art of programming and to research new parallel programming constructs and compilation techniques. We now distribute MIT Scheme 7.3, which conforms to the "Revised^4 Report On the Algorithmic Language Scheme" (MIT AI Lab Memo 848b), for which TeX source is included. It is written partly in C, but is presently hard to bootstrap. Binaries to bootstrap it exist for: HP9000 series 300, 400, 700, & 800 (running HP-UX 9.0), NeXT (NeXT OS 2 or 3.2), DEC Alpha (OSF/1), IBM RS/6000 (AIX), Sun-3 or Sun-4 (SunOS 4.1), DECstation 3100/5100 (Ultrix 4.0), Sony NeWS-3250 (NEWS OS 5.01), & Intel i386 (MS-DOS, Windows 3.1 or NT). If your system isn't on this list & you don't enjoy the bootstrap challenge, see the "JACAL" item earlier in this article. * `screen' (SrcCD) `screen' is a terminal multiplexer that runs several separate "screens" (ttys) on a single character-based terminal. Each virtual terminal emulates a DEC VT100 plus several ISO 2022 and ISO 6429 (ECMA 48, ANSI X3.64) functions, including color. Arbitrary keyboard input translation is also supported. `screen' sessions can be detached and resumed later on a different terminal type. Output in detached sessions is saved for later viewing. * `sed' (SrcCD) `sed' is a stream-oriented version of `ed'. It comes with the `rx' library. * Sharutils (SrcCD) `shar' makes so-called shell archives out of many files, preparing them for transmission by electronic mail services; `unshar' helps unpack these shell archives after reception. `uuencode' and `uudecode' are POSIX compliant implementations of a pair of programs which transform files into a format that can be safely transmitted across a 7-bit ASCII link. * Shellutils (SrcCD) The Shellutils are: `basename', `chroot', `date', `dirname', `echo', `env', `expr', `factor', `false', `groups', `hostname', `id', `logname', `nice', `nohup', `pathchk', `printenv', `printf', `pwd', `seq', `sleep', `stty', `su', `tee', `test', `true', `tty', `uname', `uptime', `users', `who', `whoami', & `yes'. * Shogi (SrcCD) Shogi is a Japanese game similar to Chess; a major difference is that captured pieces can be returned into play. GNU Shogi is a variant of GNU Chess; it implements the same features & similar heuristics. As a new feature, sequences of partial board patterns can be introduced to help the program play toward specific opening patterns. It has both character and X display interfaces. It is primarily supported by Matthias Mutz on behalf of the FSF. * SIPP (SrcCD) SIPP is a library for photorealisticly rendering 3D scenes. Scenes can be illuminated by an arbitrary number of light sources; they are built up of object hierarchies, with arbitrarily many subobjects and subsurfaces. Surfaces can be rendered with either Phong, Gouraud, or flat shading. The library supports programmable shaders and texture mapping. * Smail (SrcCD) Smail is a mail transport system, designed as a compatible drop-in replacement for `sendmail'. It uses a much simpler configuration format than `sendmail' and is designed to be setup with minimal effort. * Smalltalk *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.* (SrcCD) GNU Smalltalk is an interpreted object-oriented programming language system written in highly portable C. It has been ported to DOS, many Unix, & other OSes. Features include a binary image save capability, the ability to call user-written C code with parameters, an Emacs editing mode, a version of the X protocol invocable from Smalltalk, optional byte-code compilation and/or execution tracing, & automatically loaded per-user initialization files. It implements all of the classes & protocol in the book "Smalltalk-80: The Language", except for the graphic user interface (GUI) related classes. * SNePS (SrcCD) SNePS is the Semantic Network Processing System. It is an implementation of a fully intensional theory of propositional knowledge representation and reasoning. SNePS runs under CLISP or GCL. * Spinner (SrcCD) Spinner is a modularized, object-oriented, non-forking World Wide Web server with high performance and throughput. * Superopt (SrcCD) Superopt is a function sequence generator that uses an exhaustive generate-and-test approach to find the shortest instruction sequence for a given function. You provide a function as input, a CPU to generate code for, and how many instructions you want. Its use in GCC is described in the `ACM SIGPLAN PLDI'92 Proceedings'. It supports: SPARC, m68k, m68020, m88k, IBM POWER and PowerPC, AMD 29k, Intel x86 & 960, Pyramid, DEC Alpha, Hitachi SH, & HP-PA. * `tar' (SrcCD) GNU `tar' includes multi-volume support, the ability to archive sparse files, compression/decompression, remote archives, and special features that allow `tar' to be used for incremental and full backups. GNU `tar' uses an early draft of the POSIX 1003.1 `ustar' format which is different from the final version. This will be corrected in the future. * Termcap Library (SrcCD) [FSFman] The GNU Termcap library is a drop-in replacement for `libtermcap.a' on any system. It does not place an arbitrary limit on the size of Termcap entries, unlike most other Termcap libraries. Included is source for the `Termcap Manual' in Texinfo format (*note Documentation::.). * Termutils (SrcCD) The Termutils package contains programs for controlling terminals. `tput' is a portable way for shell scripts to use special terminal capabilities. `tabs' is a program to set hardware terminal tab settings. * TeX (SrcCD) TeX is a document formatting system that handles complicated typesetting, including mathematics. It is GNU's standard text formatter. The University of Washington maintains & supports a tape distribution of TeX for Unix systems. The core material is Karl Berry's `web2c' TeX package. Sources are available via anonymous FTP; retrieval instructions are in `/pub/tex/unixtex.ftp' on `ftp.cs.umb.edu'. If you receive any installation support from the University of Washington, consider sending them a donation. To order a full distribution written in `tar' on either a 1/4inch 4-track QIC-24 cartridge or a 4mm DAT cartridge, send $210.00 to: Pierre A. MacKay Department of Classics DH-10, Denny Hall 218 University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195 USA Electronic-Mail: `email@example.com' Telephone: +1-206-543-2268 Please make checks payable to: `University of Washington'. Do not specify any other payee. That causes accounting problems. Checks must be in U.S. dollars, drawn on a U.S. bank. Only prepaid orders can be handled. Overseas sites: please add to the base cost $20.00 to ship via air parcel post or $30.00 to ship via courier. Please check with the above for current prices & formats. * Texinfo (SrcCD) [FSFman] Texinfo is a set of utilities (`makeinfo', `info', `texi2dvi', `texindex', `tex2patch', & `fixfonts') which generate both printed manuals & online hypertext documentation (called "Info"), & can read online Info documents. Version 3 has both Emacs Lisp & standalone programs written in C or shell script. Texinfo mode for Emacs enables easy editing & updating of Texinfo files. Source for the `Texinfo Manual' is included (*note Documentation::.). * Textutils (SrcCD) The Textutils programs manipulate textual data. They include: `cat', `cksum', `comm', `csplit', `cut', `expand', `fmt', `fold', `head', `join', `md5sum', `nl', `od', `paste', `pr', `sort', `split', `sum', `tac', `tail', `tr', `unexpand', `uniq', and `wc'. * TIFF library (SrcCD) The TIFF library, `libtiff', is a library for manipulating Tagged Image File Format files, a commonly used bitmap graphics format. * Tile Forth (SrcCD) Tile Forth is a 32-bit implementation of the Forth-83 standard written in C, allowing it to be easily ported to new systems & extended with any C-function (graphics, windowing, etc). Many documented Forth libraries are available, e.g. top-down parsing, multi-threads, & object-oriented programming. * `time' (SrcCD) `time' reports (usually from a shell) the user, system, & real time used by a process. On some systems it also reports memory usage, page faults, etc. * `ucblogo' (SrcCD) `ucblogo' implements the classic teaching language, Logo. * UUCP (SrcCD) GNU's UUCP system (written by Ian Lance Taylor) supports the `f', `g' (all window & packet sizes), `v', `G', `t', `e', Zmodem, & two new bidirectional (`i' & `j') protocols. With a BSD sockets library, it can make TCP connections. With TLI libraries, it can make TLI connections. Source is included for a manual (not yet published by the FSF). * W3 (SrcCD) W3 (written by William Perry in Emacs Lisp) is an extensible, advanced World Wide Web browser that runs as part of Emacs. It understands many protocols & file formats: FTP, gopher, HTML, SMTP, Telnet, WAIS, etc. * `wdiff' (SrcCD) `wdiff' is a front-end to GNU `diff'. It compares two files, finding the words deleted or added to the first to make the second. It has many output formats and works well with terminals and pagers. `wdiff' is very useful when two texts differ only by a few words and paragraphs have been refilled. * WN (SrcCD) WN is a World Wide Web server designed to be secure and flexible. It offers many different capabilities in pre-parsing files before passing them to the client, and has a very different design from Apache and the NCSA server. * X11 (SrcCD) We distribute Version 11, Release 6.1 of the X Window System with the latest patches and bug fixes. X11 includes all of the core software, documentation, contributed clients, contributed libraries & toolkits, the Andrew User Interface System, games, etc. While supplies last, we will distribute X11R5 on the *Note November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM::. * `xboard', `xshogi' (SrcCD) `xboard' is an X Window interface to GNU Chess. `xshogi' is an X Window interface to GNU Shogi. They use the R4 Athena widgets and Xt Intrinsics to provide an interactive referee for managing a game between a user & a computer opponent, or between two computers. You can also use `xboard' without GNU Chess to play through games in files or to play through games manually (force mode); in this case, moves aren't validated. * `xgrabsc' (SrcCD) `xgrabsc' is a screen capture program similar to `xwd' but with a graphical user interface, more ways of selecting the part of the screen to capture, & different types of output: Postscript, color Postscript, xwd, bitmap, pixmap, & puzzle. * `Ygl' (SrcCD) `Ygl' emulates a subset of SGI's GL (Graphics Language) library under X11 on most platforms with an ANSI C compiler (GCC is OK). It has most two-dimensional graphics routines, the queue device & query routines, double buffering, RGB mode with dithering, FORTRAN bindings, etc. Program/Package Cross Reference ******************************* Here is a list of the package each GNU program or library is in. You can FTP the current list in the file `/pub/gnu/ProgramIndex' from a GNU FTP host (listed in *Note How to Get GNU Software::). * 4dview geomview * a2p perl * a2x xopt * ac bsd44 * accton bsd44 * ackpfd phttpd * acl bsd44 * acm acm * acms acm * addbbox geomview * addftinfo Groff * adventure bsd44 * afm2tfm TeX * aid ID Utils * amd bsd44 * ansitape bsd44 * AnswerGarden xopt * apply bsd44 * appres xreq * apropos bsd44 * ar Binutils * arithmetic bsd44 * arp bsd44 * atc bsd44 * authwn WN * autoconf Autoconf * autoheader Autoconf * automake Automake * autoreconf Autoconf * autoscan Autoconf * autoupdate Autoconf * auto_box xopt * auto_box xreq * b2m Emacs * backgammon bsd44 * bad144 bsd44 * badsect bsd44 * banner bsd44 * basename Shellutils * bash BASH * battlestar bsd44 * bc bc * bcd bsd44 * bdes bsd44 * bdftops Ghostscript * beach_ball xopt * beach_ball xreq * beach_ball2 xopt * bibtex TeX * biff bsd44 * bison Bison * bitmap xreq * boggle bsd44 * bpltobzr Fontutils * bugfiler bsd44 * buildhash Ispell * bzrto Fontutils * c++ GCC * c++filt Binutils * c2ph perl * ca100 xopt * caesar bsd44 * cal bsd44 * calendar bsd44 * canfield bsd44 * cat Textutils * cbars wdiff * cc GCC * cc1 GCC * cc1obj GCC * cc1plus GCC * cccp GCC * cdwrite mkisofs * cfengine cfengine * cgi Spinner * charspace Fontutils * checknr bsd44 * chess bsd44 * chflags bsd44 * chgrp Fileutils * ching bsd44 * chmod Fileutils * chown Fileutils * chpass bsd44 * chroot bsd44 * ci RCS * cksum Textutils * cktyps g77 * clisp CLISP * clri bsd44 * cmail xboard * cmmf TeX * cmodext xopt * cmp Diffutils * co RCS * col bsd44 * colcrt bsd44 * colrm bsd44 * column bsd44 * comm Textutils * compress bsd44 * comsat bsd44 * connectd bsd44 * cp Fileutils * cpicker xopt * cpio cpio * cpp GCC * cppstdin perl * cribbage bsd44 * crock xopt * csh bsd44 * csplit Textutils * ctags Emacs * ctwm xopt * cu UUCP * cut Textutils * cvs CVS * cvscheck CVS * cvtmail Emacs * cxterm xopt * d Fileutils * date Shellutils * dc bc * dd Fileutils * ddd DDD * defid ID Utils * delatex TeX * demangle Binutils * descend CVS * detex TeX * df Fileutils * dhtppd phttpd * diff Diffutils * diff3 Diffutils * diffpp enscript * digest-doc Emacs * dipress bsd44 * dir Fileutils * dircolors Fileutils * dirname Shellutils * dish xopt * disklabel bsd44 * diskpart bsd44 * dld dld * dm bsd44 * dmesg bsd44 * doschk doschk * dox xopt * du Fileutils * dump bsd44 * dump mkisofs * dumpfs bsd44 * dvi2tty TeX * dvicopy TeX * dvips TeX * dvitype TeX * ecc ecc * echo Shellutils * ed ed * edit-pr GNATS * editres xreq * edquota bsd44 * eeprom bsd44 * egrep grep * eid ID Utils * emacs Emacs * emacsclient Emacs * emacsserver Emacs * emacstool Emacs * emu xopt * enscript enscript * env Shellutils * eqn Groff * error bsd44 * es es * esdebug es * etags Emacs * ex nvi * example geomview * exicyclog Exim * exigrep Exim * exim Exim * eximon Exim * eximon Exim * eximstats Exim * exinext Exim * exiwhat Exim * expand Textutils * expect DejaGnu * expr Shellutils * exterm xopt * f2c f2c * factor bsd44 * fakemail Emacs * false Shellutils * fastboot bsd44 * fax2ps HylaFAX * faxalter HylaFAX * faxanswer HylaFAX * faxcover HylaFAX * faxd HylaFAX * faxd.recv HylaFAX * faxmail HylaFAX * faxquit HylaFAX * faxrcvd HylaFAX * faxrm HylaFAX * faxstat HylaFAX * fc f2c * fdraw xopt * ffe g77 * fgrep grep * fid ID Utils * file bsd44 * find Findutils * find2perl perl * finger Finger * fingerd Finger * fish bsd44 * fixfonts Texinfo * fixinc.svr4 GCC * fixincludes GCC * flex flex * flex++ flex * flythrough geomview * fmt bsd44 * fnid ID Utils * fold Textutils * font2c Ghostscript * fontconvert Fontutils * forth Tile Forth * forthicon Tile Forth * forthtool Tile Forth * fortune bsd44 * fpr bsd44 * freq Ispell * freqtbl Ispell * from bsd44 * fsck bsd44 * fsplit bsd44 * fstat bsd44 * ftp bsd44 * ftp Inetutils * ftpd bsd44 * ftpd Inetutils * g++ GCC * gas Binutils * gawk GAWK * gcal gcal * gcc GCC * gcore bsd44 * gdb GDB * genclass libg++ * geomstuff geomview * gettext gettext * getty bsd44 * gftodvi TeX * gftopk TeX * gftype TeX * ghostview Ghostview * gid ID Utils * ginsu geomview * git GIT * gitaction GIT * gitcmp GIT * gitkeys GIT * gitmatch GIT * gitmount GIT * gitps GIT * gitredir GIT * gitrgrep GIT * gitview GIT * gitwipe GIT * gn GN * gnans Gnans * gnanslator Gnans * gnats GNATS * gnuchess Chess * gnuchessc Chess * gnuchessn Chess * gnuchessr Chess * gnuchessx Chess * gnuclient gnuserv * gnudoit gnuserv * gnupdisp Shogi * gnuplot gnuplot * gnuplot_x11 gnuplot * gnuserv gnuserv * gnushogi Shogi * gnushogir Shogi * gnushogix Shogi * go GnuGo * gpc xopt * gpc xreq * gperf cperf * gperf libg++ * gprof Binutils * graffiti geomview * graph Graphics * grep grep * grodvi Groff * groff Groff * grops Groff * grotty Groff * groups Shellutils * gs Ghostscript * gsbj Ghostscript * gsdj Ghostscript * gslj Ghostscript * gslp Ghostscript * gsnd Ghostscript * gsrenderfont Fontutils * gunzip gzip * gvclock geomview * gwm xopt * gzexe gzip * gzip gzip * h2ph perl * h2pl perl * hack bsd44 * hangman bsd44 * head Textutils * hello hello * hexdump bsd44 * hexl Emacs * hinge geomview * hostname Shellutils * hp2xx hp2xx * hterm xopt * htmlencode phttpd * httpd apache * httpdecode phttpd * i18nOlwmV2 xopt * i2mif xopt * ico xopt * ico xreq * id Shellutils * ident RCS * ifconfig bsd44 * ifnames Autoconf * ImageMagick xopt * imageto Fontutils * iman xopt * imgrotate Fontutils * indent indent * indxbib Groff * inetd bsd44 * inetd Inetutils * info Texinfo * inimf TeX * init bsd44 * initex TeX * inn bsd44 * install Fileutils * iostat bsd44 * isodiag mkisofs * isodump mkisofs * ispell Ispell * ixterm xopt * ixx xopt * join Textutils * jot bsd44 * jove bsd44 * kdestroy bsd44 * kdump bsd44 * kermit bsd44 * kgames xopt * kgmon bsd44 * kill bsd44 * kinit bsd44 * kinput2 xopt * klist bsd44 * kpasswdd bsd44 * ksrvtgt bsd44 * kterm xopt * ktrace bsd44 * lam bsd44 * larn bsd44 * lasergnu gnuplot * last bsd44 * lastcomm bsd44 * latex TeX * lclock xopt * ld Binutils * leave bsd44 * less less * lesskey less * libavcall.a ffcall * libbfd.a Binutils * libbfd.a GDB * libbzr.a Fontutils * libc.a C Library * libcompat.a bsd44 * libcurses.a bsd44 * libcurses.a ncurses * libdcurses.a ncurses * libedit.a bsd44 * libF77.a f2c * libF77.a g77 * libg++.a libg++ * libgdbm.a gdbm * libgf.a Fontutils * libgmp.a gmp * libgnanslib.a Gnans * libgnussl.a gnussl * libI77.a f2c * libI77.a g77 * libkvm.a bsd44 * libm.a bsd44 * libncurses.a ncurses * libnihcl.a NIHCL * libnihclmi.a NIHCL * libnihclvec.a NIHCL * libnls.a xreq * libobjects.a libobjects * liboctave.a Octave * liboldX.a xreq * libpbm.a Fontutils * libPEXt.a xopt * libpk.a Fontutils * libresolv.a bsd44 * librpc.a bsd44 * libsipp.a SIPP * libtcl.a DejaGnu * libtelnet.a bsd44 * libterm.a bsd44 * libtermcap.a Termcap * libtfm.a Fontutils * libtiff.a tiff * libutil.a bsd44 * libvacall.a ffcall * libWc.a xopt * libwidgets.a Fontutils * libX.a xreq * libXau.a xreq * libXaw.a xreq * libXcp.a xopt * libXcu.a xopt * libXdmcp.a xreq * libXmp.a xopt * libXmu.a xreq * libXO.a xopt * libXop.a xopt * libXp.a xopt * libXpex.a xopt * libXt.a xopt * libXt.a xreq * libXwchar.a xopt * liby.a bsd44 * libYgl.a Ygl * lid ID Utils * limn Fontutils * listres xopt * listres xreq * lkbib Groff * ln Fileutils * locate Findutils * lock bsd44 * logcvt-ip2n phttpd * logger bsd44 * login bsd44 * logname Shellutils * logo ucblogo * lookbib Groff * lorder bsd44 * lpr bsd44 * ls Fileutils * lynx lynx * m4 m4 * mail bsd44 * mail-files Sharutils * mailq smail * mailshar Sharutils * make make * make-docfile Emacs * make-path Emacs * makeindex TeX * makeinfo Texinfo * MakeTeXPK TeX * man bsd44 * man-macros Groff * maniview geomview * mattrib mtools * maze xopt * maze xreq * mazewar xopt * mc mc * mcd mtools * mcopy mtools * mcserv mc * md5sum Textutils * mdel mtools * mdir mtools * me-macros Groff * medit2gv geomview * merge RCS * mesg bsd44 * mf TeX * mformat mtools * mft TeX * mgdiff xopt * mh bsd44 * mille bsd44 * mkafmmap enscript * mkcache GN * mkdep bsd44 * mkdir Fileutils * mkfifo Fileutils * mkid ID Utils * mkisofs mkisofs * mklocale bsd44 * mkmanifest mtools * mkmf bsd44 * mkmodules CVS * mknod Fileutils * mkstr bsd44 * mlabel mtools * mm-macros Groff * mmd mtools * monop bsd44 * more bsd44 * morse bsd44 * mount bsd44 * mountd bsd44 * movemail Emacs * mprof bsd44 * mrd mtools * mread mtools * mren mtools * ms-macros Groff * msgcmp gettext * msgfmt gettext * msgmerge gettext * msgs bsd44 * msgunfmt gettext * mst Smalltalk * mt cpio * mterm xopt * mtree bsd44 * mtype mtools * mule MULE * muncher xopt * mv Fileutils * mvdir Fileutils * mwrite mtools * NDview geomview * nethack NetHack * netstat bsd44 * newfs bsd44 * nfsd bsd44 * nfsiod bsd44 * nfsstat bsd44 * nice Shellutils * nl Textutils * nlmconv Binutils * nm Binutils * nohup Shellutils * nose geomview * notify HylaFAX * nroff Groff * number bsd44 * objc GCC * objcopy Binutils * objdump Binutils * objective-c GCC * obst-boot OBST * obst-CC OBST * obst-cct OBST * obst-cgc OBST * obst-cmp OBST * obst-cnt OBST * obst-cpcnt OBST * obst-csz OBST * obst-dir OBST * obst-dmp OBST * obst-gen OBST * obst-gsh OBST * obst-init OBST * obst-scp OBST * obst-sil OBST * obst-stf OBST * oclock xreq * octave Octave * od Textutils * oleo Oleo * ora-examples xopt * p2c p2c * pagesize bsd44 * palette xopt * pascal bsd44 * passwd bsd44 * paste Textutils * patch patch * patgen TeX * pathalias bsd44 * pathchk Shellutils * pathto smail * pax bsd44 * pbmplus xopt * perl perl * pfbtops Groff * phantasia bsd44 * phttpd phttpd * pic Groff * pico pine * pig bsd44 * pine pine * ping bsd44 * pixedit xopt * pixmap xopt * pktogf TeX * pktype TeX * plaid xopt * plot2fig Graphics * plot2plot Graphics * plot2ps Graphics * plot2tek Graphics * pltotf TeX * pollrcvd HylaFAX * pom bsd44 * pooltype TeX * portmap bsd44 * ppt bsd44 * pr Textutils * pr-addr GNATS * pr-edit GNATS * primes bsd44 * printenv Shellutils * printf Shellutils * protoize GCC * proxygarb Spinner * ps bsd44 * ps2ascii Ghostscript * ps2epsi Ghostscript * ps2fax HylaFAX * psbb Groff * pstat bsd44 * psycho xopt * ptester phttpd * ptx ptx * pubdic+ xopt * puzzle xopt * puzzle xreq * pwd Shellutils * pyramid xopt * query-pr GNATS * quiz bsd44 * quot bsd44 * quota bsd44 * quotacheck bsd44 * quotaon bsd44 * rain bsd44 * random bsd44 * ranlib Binutils * rbootd bsd44 * rc rc * rcp bsd44 * rcp Inetutils * rcs RCS * rcs-to-cvs CVS * rcs2log Emacs * rcsdiff RCS * rcsfreeze RCS * rcsmerge RCS * rdist bsd44 * reboot bsd44 * recode recode * recvstats HylaFAX * red ed * refer Groff * remsync Sharutils * renice bsd44 * repquota bsd44 * restore bsd44 * rev bsd44 * rexecd bsd44 * rexecd Inetutils * rlog RCS * rlogin bsd44 * rlogin Inetutils * rlogind bsd44 * rlogind Inetutils * rm Fileutils * rmail bsd44 * rmdir Fileutils * rmt cpio * rmt tar * robots bsd44 * rogue bsd44 * route bsd44 * routed bsd44 * rr xopt * rs bsd44 * rsh bsd44 * rsh Inetutils * rshd bsd44 * rshd Inetutils * rsmtp smail * runq smail * runtest DejaGnu * runtest.exp DejaGnu * ruptime bsd44 * rwho bsd44 * rwhod bsd44 * s2p perl * sail bsd44 * saoimage SAOimage * savecore bsd44 * sc bsd44 * sccs bsd44 * sccs2rcs CVS * scdisp xopt * screen screen * script bsd44 * scsiformat bsd44 * sctext xopt * sdiff Diffutils * sed sed * send-pr GNATS * sendfax HylaFAX * sendmail bsd44 * sgi2fax HylaFAX * sgn GN * sh bsd44 * shar Sharutils * shinbun xopt * shogi Shogi * showfont xopt * showmount bsd44 * shutdown bsd44 * size Binutils * sj3 xopt * sjxa xopt * slattach bsd44 * sleep Shellutils * sliplogin bsd44 * smail smail * smtpd smail * snake bsd44 * snftobdf xopt * soelim Groff * sort Textutils * sos2obst OBST * spider xopt * split Textutils * startslip bsd44 * stereo geomview * stf OBST * strings Binutils * strip Binutils * stty Shellutils * su Shellutils * sum Textutils * superopt Superopt * swapon bsd44 * sweep geomview * sync bsd44 * sysctl bsd44 * syslog Inetutils * syslogd bsd44 * syslogd Inetutils * systat bsd44 * tabs Termutils * tac Textutils * tackdown geomview * tail Textutils * taintperl perl * talk bsd44 * talk Inetutils * talkd bsd44 * talkd Inetutils * tangle TeX * tar tar * tbl Groff * tcal gcal * tcl DejaGnu * tclsh DejaGnu * tcopy bsd44 * tcp Emacs * tee Shellutils * tek2plot Graphics * telnet bsd44 * telnet Inetutils * telnetd bsd44 * telnetd Inetutils * test Shellutils * test-g++ DejaGnu * test-tool DejaGnu * tetris bsd44 * tex TeX * tex3patch Texinfo * texi2dvi Texinfo * texindex Texinfo * texspell TeX * textfmt HylaFAX * tfmtodit Groff * tftopl TeX * tftp bsd44 * tftp Inetutils * tftpd bsd44 * tftpd Inetutils * tgrind TeX * time time * timed bsd44 * timer Emacs * timex xopt * tip bsd44 * tkpostage xopt * tn3270 bsd44 * togeomview geomview * touch Fileutils * tput Termutils * tr Textutils * traceroute bsd44 * transcript HylaFAX * transfig xopt * transformer geomview * trek bsd44 * trigrp geomview * trn3 bsd44 * troff Groff * trpt bsd44 * trsp bsd44 * true Shellutils * tset bsd44 * tsort bsd44 * tty Shellutils * ttygnans Gnans * tunefs bsd44 * tupdate gettext * tvtwm xopt * twm xreq * ul bsd44 * ulpc Spinner * umount bsd44 * uname Shellutils * uncompress gzip * unexpand Textutils * unifdef bsd44 * unify wdiff * uniq Textutils * unprotoize GCC * unshar Sharutils * unvis bsd44 * update bsd44 * updatedb Findutils * users Shellutils * uuchk UUCP * uucico UUCP * uuconv UUCP * uucp UUCP * uucpd bsd44 * uucpd Inetutils * uudecode Sharutils * uudir UUCP * uuencode Sharutils * uulog UUCP * uuname UUCP * uupath smail * uupick UUCP * uurate UUCP * uusched UUCP * uustat UUCP * uuto UUCP * uux UUCP * uuxqt UUCP * v Fileutils * vacation bsd44 * vandal xopt * vcdiff Emacs * vdir Fileutils * vftovp TeX * vgrind bsd44 * vi nvi * viewres xopt * viewres xreq * vine xopt * vipw bsd44 * virmf TeX * virtex TeX * vis bsd44 * vmstat bsd44 * vptovf TeX * w bsd44 * waisgn GN * wakeup Emacs * wall bsd44 * wargames bsd44 * wc Textutils * wdiff wdiff * weave TeX * what bsd44 * whatis bsd44 * whereis bsd44 * who Shellutils * whoami Shellutils * whois bsd44 * window bsd44 * winterp xopt * wish DejaGnu * wn WN * wndex WN * worm bsd44 * worms bsd44 * write bsd44 * wump bsd44 * x11perf xreq * x2p perl * xalarm xopt * xancur xopt * xargs Findutils * xauth xreq * xbfe Fontutils * xbiff xopt * xbiff xreq * xboard xboard * xboing xopt * xbuffy3 xopt * xcalc xopt * xcalc xreq * xcalendar xopt * xcdplayer xopt * xcell xopt * xclipboard xreq * xclock xreq * xcmdmenu xopt * xcms xopt * xcmsdb xreq * xcmstest xreq * xco xopt * xcolorize xopt * xcolors xopt * xconsole xreq * xcrtca xopt * xdaliclock xopt * xdiary xopt * xditview Groff * xditview xopt * xditview xreq * xdm xreq * xdpyinfo xreq * xdu xopt * xdvi TeX * xdvi xopt * xdvorak xopt * xearth xopt * xed xopt * xedit xopt * xedit xreq * xev xopt * xev xreq * xexit xopt * xeyes xopt * xeyes xreq * xfd xreq * xfed xopt * xfedor xopt * xfeoak xopt * xferstats HylaFAX * xfig xopt * xfontsel xopt * xfontsel xreq * xforecast xopt * xgas xopt * xgas xreq * xgc xopt * xgc xreq * xgettext gettext * xhearts xopt * xhelp xopt * xhost xreq * xinit xreq * xkeycaps xopt * xkill xreq * xlax xopt * xlayout xopt * xlbiff xopt * xless xopt * xload xopt * xload xreq * xlogin xopt * xlogo xreq * xlsatoms xreq * xlsclients xreq * xlsfonts xreq * xmag xreq * xmail xopt * xmailbox xopt * xmailwatcher xopt * xman xopt * xman xreq * xmandel xopt * xmessage xopt * xmeter xopt * xmh xreq * xmh-icons xopt * xmh.editor xopt * xmodmap xreq * xmon xopt * xmove xopt * xmphone xopt * xpd xopt * xphoon xopt * xpipeman xopt * xplot Graphics * xpostit xopt * xpr xopt * xpr xreq * xprompt xopt * xproof xopt * xprop xreq * xpserv xopt * xrdb xreq * xrefresh xreq * xrsh xopt * xrubik xopt * xrunclient xopt * xscope xopt * xscreensaver xopt * xsession xopt * xset xreq * xsetroot xreq * xshogi xshogi * xstdcmap xreq * xstr bsd44 * xtalk xopt * xterm xreq * xterm_color xopt * xtetris xopt * xTeXcad.13 xopt * xtiff xopt * xtokid ID Utils * xtree xopt * xtv xopt * xwd xreq * xwininfo xreq * xwud xreq * yacc bsd44 * yes Shellutils * youbin xopt * yow Emacs * zcat gzip * zcmp gzip * zdiff gzip * zforce gzip * zgrep gzip * zmore gzip * znew gzip * [ Shellutils CD-ROMs ******* We offer these CD-ROMs: * Several editions of our *Note Source Code CD-ROMs::. * December 1995 *Note Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM::. * December 1994 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, see the *note Free Software Foundation Order Form::. * December 1993 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, see the *note Free Software Foundation Order Form::. Our CD-ROMs are in ISO 9660 format and can be mounted as a read-only file system on most computers. If your driver supports it, you can mount each CD with "Rock Ridge" extensions and it will look just like an ordinary Unix file system, rather than one full of truncated and otherwise mangled names that fit vanilla ISO 9660. You can build most of the software without copying the sources off the CD. You only need enough disk space for object files and intermediate build targets. Pricing of the GNU CD-ROMs -------------------------- If a business or organization is ultimately paying, the July 1996 Source CD set costs $240. The set costs $60 if you, an individual, are paying out of your own pocket. The December 1995 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM costs $220 for a business or organization, and $55 for an individual. What Do the Different Prices Mean? .................................. The software on our disks is free; anyone can copy it and anyone can run it. What we charge for is the physical disk and the service of distribution. We charge two different prices depending on who is buying. When a company or other organization buys the July 1996 Source CD-ROMs, we charge $240. When an individual buys the same CD-ROMs, we charge just $60. This distinction is not a matter of who is allowed to use the software. In either case, once you have a copy, you can distribute as many copies as you wish and there's no restriction on who can have or run them. The price distinction is entirely a matter of what kind of entity pays for the CDs. You, the reader, are certainly an individual, not a company. If you are buying a disk "in person", then you are probably doing so as an individual. But if you expect to be reimbursed by your employer, then the disk is really for the company; so please pay the company price and get reimbursed for it. We won't try to check up on you--we use the honor system--so please cooperate. Buying CDs at the company price is very helpful for GNU; just 140 Source CDs at that price support an FSF programmer or tech writer for a year. Why Is There an Individual Price? ................................. In the past, our distribution tapes were ordered mainly by companies. The CD at the price of $240 provides them with all of our software for a much lower price than they would previously have paid for six different tapes. To lower the price more would cut into the FSF's funds very badly and decrease the software development we can do. However, for individuals, $240 is too high a price; hardly anyone could afford that. So we decided to make CDs available to individuals at the lower price of $60. Is There a Maximum Price? ......................... Our stated prices are minimum prices. Feel free to pay a higher price if you wish to support GNU development more. The sky's the limit; we will accept as high a price as you can offer. Or simply give a donation (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to the Free Software Foundation, a tax-exempt public charity. December 1995 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM -------------------------------------------- We have the third edition of our CD-ROM that has binaries and complete sources for GNU compiler tools for some systems which lack a compiler. This enables the people who use these systems to compile GNU and other free software without having to buy a proprietary compiler. You can also use these GNU tools to compile your own C/C++/Objective-C programs. Older editions of this CD are available while supplies last at a reduced price; see the *note Free Software Foundation Order Form::. We hope to have more systems on each update of this CD. If you can help build binaries for new systems (especially those that don't come with a C compiler), or have one to suggest, please contact us at the addresses on the top menu. These packages: * DJGPP 1.12m4 from GCC 2.6.3 * GCC/G++/Objective-C 2.7.1 * GNU C Library 1.09 * GDB 4.15.1 * Binutils 2.6 * Bison 1.24 * Emacs 19.29 (MS-DOS only) * Flex 2.5.2 * Make 3.74 * libg++ 2.7.1 On these platforms: * `i386-msdos' * `hppa1.0-hp-hpux9' * `sparc-sun-solaris2' * `sparc-sun-sunos4.1' MS-DOS/Windows Book with CD-ROM ------------------------------- We are working on our first book on GNU Software for DOS/Windows, but we do not know when it will be finished. It will include a CD-ROM with the sources & binaries for much of the GNU software. Because it just slows us down, please do NOT contact us about this book until we announce it on our electronic mailing lists (to subscribe, ask `firstname.lastname@example.org'). Source Code CD-ROMs ------------------- We have several versions of our Source Code CD-ROMs available, including: * *Note July 1996 Source Code CD-ROMs::, the newest release, has programs, bug fixes, & improvements not on the other CDs. * *Note December 1995 Source Code CD-ROMs::. * June 1995 Source Code CD-ROM, see the *note Free Software Foundation Order Form::. * May 1994 Source Code CD-ROM, see the *note Free Software Foundation Order Form::. * *Note November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM::. * May 1993 Source Code CD-ROM, see the *note Free Software Foundation Order Form::. * October 1992 Source Code CD-ROM, see the *note Free Software Foundation Order Form::. The older Source CDs are available while supplies last at a reduced price (please note that the December 1994 Source CD is permanently out of stock). All the Source CDs have Texinfo source for the GNU manuals listed in *Note Documentation::. MIT Scheme & much of X11 is *not* on the older Source CDs. There are no precompiled programs on these Source CDs. You will need a C compiler (programs which need some other interpreter or compiler normally provide the C source for a bootstrapping program). We ship C compiler binaries for some systems on the *Note Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM::. July 1996 Source Code CD-ROMs ............................. The 8th edition of our Source Code CD is out with two CD-ROM disks. It has programs, bug fixes, & improvements not on the older Source CDs. It has these packages, & some manuals that are not part of packages: * acm 4.7 * apache 1.1 * Autoconf 2.10 * Automake 1.0 * BASH 1.14.6 * bc 1.03 * Binutils 2.7 * Bison 1.25 * C Library 1.93 * Calc 2.02d * cfengine 1.3.7 * Chess 4.0.pl77 * CLISP 1996.05.30 * Common Lisp 2.2 * cperf 2.1a * cpio 2.4.2 * CVS 1.8.1 * DejaGnu 1.3 * Diffutils 2.7 * dld 3.3 * doschk 1.1 * ed 0.2 * Elib 1.0 * elisp archive * Emacs 18.59 * Emacs 19.31 * Emacs 19.32 * enscript 1.4.0 * es 0.84 * Exim 0.53 * f2c 1996.07.23 * ffcall 1.0 * Fileutils 3.13 * Findutils 4.1 * Finger 1.37 * flex 2.5.3 * Fontutils 0.6 * g77 0.5.18 * GAWK 3.0.0 * gcal 1.01 * GCC/G++/Objective-C 126.96.36.199 * GCC 2.7.3 * GDB 4.16 * gdbm 1.7.3 * Generic NQS 3.50.0 * geomview 1.5.0 * gettext 0.10 * Ghostscript 3.33 * Ghostview 1.5 * Ghostview for Windows 1.0 * GIT 4.3.11 * gmp 2.0.2 * GN 2.24 * Gnans 1.5.1 * gnat 3.05 * GNATS 3.2 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 1.03 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 2.4 * GnuGo 1.2 * gnuplot 3.5 * gnuserv 2.1alpha * gnussl 0.2 * Graphics 0.17 * grep 2.0 * Groff 1.10 * gzip 1.2.4 * hello 1.3 * hp2xx 3.1.4 * HylaFAX 4.0b018 * ID Utils 3.1 * indent 1.9.1 * Inetutils 1.0 * Ispell 3.1.20 * karma 1.4 * less 321 * libg++ 2.7.2 * libobjects 0.1.19 * lynx 2.5 * m4 1.4 * make 3.75 * MandelSpawn 0.07 * maxima 5.2 * mc 3.2.1 * miscfiles 1.0 * mkisofs 1.05GNU * mm 1.07 * mtools 3.0 * MULE 2.3 * ncurses 1.9.9e * NetHack 3.2.1 * NIHCL 3.1.4 * nvi 1.71 * Oaklisp 930720 * OBST 3.4.3 * Octave 1.1.1 * Oleo 1.6 * p2c 1.20 * patch 2.1 * perl 4.036 * perl 5.003 * phttpd 0.99.72.1 * pine 3.91 * Programming in Emacs Lisp an Introduction 1.04 * ptx 0.4 * rc 1.4 * RCS 5.7 * readline 2.0 * regex 0.12 * rx 1.0 * SAOimage 1.18 * screen 3.7.1 * sed 2.05 * Sharutils 4.2 * Shellutils 1.12 * Shogi 1.2p03 * SIPP 3.1 * smail 3.2 * Smalltalk 1.1.1 * Spinner 1.0b14 * Superopt 2.5 * tar 1.11.8 * Termcap 1.3 * Termutils 2.0 * TeX 3.145 * Texinfo 3.7 * Textutils 1.19 * tiff 3.4b035 * Tile Forth 2.1 * time 1.7 * ucblogo 3.3 * UUCP 1.06.1 * W3 2.2.26 * wdiff 0.5 * WN 1.15.3 * X11R6.1 * xboard 3.4.pl1 * xgrabsc 2.41 * xshogi 1.2p03 * Ygl 3.1 December 1995 Source Code CD-ROMs ................................. We still have copies of the 7th edition of our Source CD available. This was the first two-disk edition of our Source Code CD. It contains these packages, & some manuals that are not part of packages: * acm 4.7 * apache 0.8.8 * Autoconf 2.7 * BASH 1.14.5 * bc 1.03 * Binutils 2.5.2 * Binutils 2.6 * Bison 1.24 * C Library 1.09 * Calc 2.02c * cfengine 1.2.21 * Chess 4.0.pl75 * CLISP 1995.08.12 * Common Lisp 2.2 * cperf 2.1a * cpio 2.3 * CVS 1.6 * DDD 1.3b * DejaGnu 1.2.9 * Diffutils 2.7 * dld 3.2.3 * doschk 1.1 * ecc 1.2.1 * ed 0.2 * Elib 0.07 * Elisp archive * Emacs 18.59 * Emacs 19.28 * Emacs 19.29 * Emacs 19.30 * es 0.84 * f2c 1995.11.18 * ffcall 1.0 * Fileutils 3.12 * Findutils 4.1 * Finger 1.37 * flex 2.5.2 * Fontutils 0.6 * g77 0.5.17 * GAWK 2.15.6 * GCC/G++/Objective C 2.7.1 * GDB 4.15.1 * gdbm 1.7.3 * gettext 0.9a * Ghostscript 2.6.2 * Ghostview 1.5 * Ghostview for Windows 1.0 * GIT 4.3.7 * gmp 1.3.2 * GN 2.23 * Gnans 1.5 * GNATS 3.2 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, Ed. 1.03 for Version 18.59 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, Ed. 2.4 for Version 19.29 * GnuGo 1.2 * gnuplot 3.5 * gnuserv 2.1alpha * Graphics 0.17 * grep 2.0 * Groff 1.09 * gzip 1.2.4 * hello 1.3 * hp2xx 3.1.4 * HylaFAX v3.0pl0 * Hyperbole 4.01 * indent 1.9.1 * Ispell 3.1.20 * less 290 * libg++ 2.7.1 * libobjects 0.1.3 * m4 1.4 * make 3.74 * mc 3.0 * MIT Scheme 7.3 * mkisofs 1.04GNU * mtools 2.0.7 * MULE 2.3 * ncurses 1.9.7a * NetHack 3.1.3 * NIHCL 3.1.4 * nvi 1.34 * Oaklisp 93.07.23 * OBST 3.4.3 * Octave 1.1.1 * Oleo 1.6 * p2c 1.20 * patch 2.1 * perl 4.036 * perl 5.001 * phttpd 0.99.68 * pine 3.91 * Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction, Ed. 1.04 * ptx 0.4 * rc 1.4 * RCS 5.7 * recode 3.4 * regex 0.12 * rx 0.05 * SAOimage 1.08 * screen 3.7.1 * sed 2.05 * Sharutils 4.1 * Shellutils 1.12 * Shogi 1.2p03 * SIPP 3.1 * Smalltalk 1.1.1 * SNePS 2.3.1 * Spinner 1.0b11 * Superopt 2.5 * tar 1.11.8 * Termcap 1.3 * TeX 3.145 * Texinfo 3.6 * Textutils 1.13 * Tile Forth 2.1 * time 1.6 * tput 1.0 * ucblogo 3.3 * UUCP 1.06.1 * W3 2.2.25 * wdiff 0.5 * X11R6 * xboard 3.3.pl3 * xgrabsc 2.41 * xshogi 1.2p03 * Ygl 3.0.2 November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM ................................ We still have the 3rd edition of our Source CD, at a reduced price, while supplies last. It was the last Source Code CD to contain X11R5. This CD has Edition 2.2 for version 19 of the `GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual' & some additional software; not all FSF distributed software is included (*note Source Code CD-ROMs::.). It contains these packages: * acm 3.1 * Autoconf 1.7 * BASH 1.13.4 * bc 1.02 * Binutils 1.9 * Binutils 2.3 * Bison 1.22 * C Library 1.06.7 * Calc 2.02b * Chess 4.0p62 * CLISP 93.11.08 * cpio 2.3 * CVS 1.3 * dc 0.2 * DejaGnu 1.0.1 * Diffutils 2.6 * dld 3.2.3 * doschk 1.1 * ecc 1.2.1 * Elib 0.06 * Emacs 18.59 * Emacs 19.21 * es 0.84 * f2c 1993.04.28 * Fileutils 3.9 * find 3.8 * Finger 1.37 * flex 2.3.8 * Fontutils 0.6 * GAS 1.36.utah * GAS 1.38.1 * GAS 2.2 * GAWK 2.15.3 * GCC/G++/Objective-C 2.5.4 * GDB 4.11 * gdbm 1.7.1 * Ghostscript 2.6.1 * Ghostview 1.5 * Ghostview for Windows 1.0 * gmp 1.3.2 * GNATS 3.01 * GnuGo 1.1 * gnuplot 3.5 * gperf 2.1a * Graphics 0.17 * grep 2.0 * Groff 1.08 * gzip 1.2.4 * hello 1.3 * hp2xx 3.1.3a * indent 1.8 * Ispell 4.0 * less 177 * libg++ 2.5.1 * m4 1.1 * make 3.69.1 * MandelSpawn 0.06 * mtools 2.0.7 * MULE 1.0 * NetFax 3.2.1 * NetHack 3.1.3 * NIHCL 3.0 * Oleo 1.5 * p2c 1.20 * patch 2.1 * PCL 93.03.18 * perl 4.036 * ptx 0.3 * rc 1.4 * RCS 188.8.131.52 * recode 3.2.4 * regex 0.12 * screen 3.5.2 * sed-1.18 2.03 * shellutils 1.9.1 * Shogi 1.1p02 * Smalltalk 1.1.1 * Superopt 2.3 * tar 1.11.2 * Termcap 1.2 * TeX 3.1 * Texinfo 3.1 * tileforth 2.1 * time 1.6 * tput 1.0 * UUCP 1.04 * uuencode 1.0 * wdiff 0.04 * X11R5 CD-ROM Subscription Service *************************** Our subscription service enables you to stay current with the latest GNU developments. For a one-time cost equivalent to three Source CD-ROMs (plus shipping in some cases), we will ship you four new versions of the *Note Source Code CD-ROMs::. The CD-ROMs are sent as they are issued (currently twice a year, but we hope to make it more frequent). We do not yet know if we will be offering subscriptions to the Compiler Tools Binaries CD or our DOS/Windows Book with CD-ROM when it is available. A subscription is an easy way to keep up with the regular bug fixes to the X Window System. Each edition of the *Note Source Code CD-ROMs::, has updated sources for the X Window System. Please note: In two cases, you must pay 4 times the normal shipping required for a single order when you pay for each subscription. If you're in Alaska, Hawaii, or Puerto Rico you must add $20.00 for shipping for each subscription. If you're outside of the U.S., Canada, and Puerto Rico, you must add $80.00 for each subscription. See "CD-ROMs" and "Tax and Shipping Costs" on the *note Free Software Foundation Order Form::. The Deluxe Distribution *********************** The Free Software Foundation has been asked repeatedly to create a package that provides executables for all of our software. Normally we offer only sources. The Deluxe Distribution provides binaries with the source code and includes six T-shirts, all our CD-ROMs, printed manuals, & reference cards. The FSF Deluxe Distribution contains the binaries and sources to hundreds of different programs including Emacs, the GNU C/C++ Compiler, the GNU Debugger, the complete X Window System, and all the GNU utilities. We will make a Deluxe Distribution for most machines/operating systems. We may be able to send someone to your office to do the compilation, if we can't find a suitable machine close to us. 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