July 1996, GNU's Bulletin (Text Version)


GNU's Bulletin                                           July, 1996
        The GNU's Bulletin is the semi-annual newsletter of the

                Free Software Foundation, bringing you

                      news about the GNU Project.


Free Software Foundation, Inc.     Telephone: +1-617-542-5942
59 Temple Place - Suite 330        Fax: (including Japan) +1-617-542-2652
Boston, MA   02111-1307            Electronic Mail: `gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu'
USA                                World Wide Web: http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu

Table of Contents

        GNU's Who
        Administrivia and Copyright
        Other GPL'ed Software
        What Is the FSF?
        What Is Copyleft?
        What Is the Hurd?
        What Is a GNU/Linux system?
        FSF and Debian Separate Amicably
        Some Bad News about Pine
        First Free Software Conference
        GNUs Flashes
        Free Software Redistributors Donate
        Help from Free Software Companies
        Free Software Support
        What Is the LPF?
        News from the LPF
        Help the GNU Translation Project
        GNU & Other Free Software in Japan
        Forthcoming GNUs
        GNU Software
           Configuring GNU Software
           GNU Software Currently Available
        Program/Package Cross Reference
           Pricing of the GNU CD-ROMs
              What do the Different Prices Mean?
              Why Is There an Individual Price?
              Is There a Maximum Price?
           December 1995 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM
           MS-DOS/Windows Book with CD-ROM
           Source Code CD-ROMs
              July 1996 Source Code CD-ROMs
              December 1995 Source Code CD-ROMs
              November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM
        CD-ROM Subscription Service
        The Deluxe Distribution
        GNU Documentation
        How to Get GNU Software
        FSF T-shirt
        Free Software for Microcomputers
        Project GNU Wish List
        Thank GNUs
        Donations Translate Into Free Software
        Cygnus Matches Donations!
        Free Software Foundation Order Form
        Address Page


GNU's Who

   Miles Bader and Thomas Bushnell, n/BSG (whose name used to be
Michael) work on the Hurd.  Roland McGrath still works on the Hurd and
maintains `make' and the GNU C library; after 9 years with us, he has
decided to join the University of Utah's Flux Project (see *Note GNUs
Flashes::, for information on this project).  We thank him for his work
and dedication.  Karl Heuer enhances Emacs and is in charge of making
Deluxe Distributions.  Jim Blandy has returned to the FSF temporarily,
and is working on a desktop interface.  Melissa Weisshaus is working
on special documentation projects. 

   Peter H. Salus has joined us to do fundraising and publishing and
manage the non-technical side of the FSF.  He ran the *Note First
Conference on Freely Redistributable Software::.  Carol Botteron has
joined us to manage the FSF Office, and Tami Friedman has joined the
Office staff.  Brian Youmans is our new Distribution Manager.  Robert
J. Chassell is our Secretary/Treasurer.  Daniel Hagerty has left the
FSF; we thank him for his hard work.

   Thanks to volunteer Scott Ewing for helping to coordinate all the
volunteers in the GNU Project.  Richard Stallman continues as a
volunteer who does countless tasks, such as Emacs maintenance.
Volunteers Phil Nelson and Len Tower work on our Web site.  Len also
remains our online JOAT (jack-of-all-trades), for mailing lists,
gnUSENET newsgroups, information requests, etc.


Administrivia and Copyright

Written and Edited by: Melissa Weisshaus, Robert J. Chassell,
and Leonard H. Tower Jr.

Illustrations by: Etienne Suvasa

Japanese Edition by: Mieko Hikichi and Nobuyuki Hikichi

ISSN (International Standard Serial Number): 1075-7813

   The GNU's Bulletin is published at the end of January and the end of
July each year.  Please note that there is no postal mailing list.  To
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(Including a few extra International Reply Coupons for copying costs is
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   Copyright (C) 1996 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to anyone to make or distribute verbatim copies of
this document, in any medium, provided that the copyright notice and
permission notice are preserved, and that the distributor grants the
recipient permission for further redistribution as permitted by this


Other GPL'ed Software

   We maintain a list of copylefted software that we do not presently
distribute.  FTP the file `/pub/gnu/GPLedSoftware' from a GNU FTP host
(listed in *Note How to Get GNU Software::).  Please let us know of
additional programs we should mention.  We don't list Emacs Lisp
Libraries; host `archive.cis.ohio-state.edu' has a list of those you
can FTP in the file `/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive/LCD-datafile.Z'.


What Is the FSF?

   The Free Software Foundation is dedicated to eliminating
restrictions on people's right to use, copy, modify, and redistribute
computer programs.  We do this by promoting the development and use of
free software.  Specifically, we are putting together a complete,
integrated software system named "GNU" ("GNU's Not Unix", pronounced
"guh-new") that will be upwardly compatible with Unix.  Most parts of
this system are already being used and distributed.

   The word "free" in our name refers to freedom, not price.  You may
or may not pay money to get GNU software, but either way you have three
specific freedoms once you get it: first, the freedom to copy a
program, and distribute it to your friends and co-workers; second, the
freedom to change a program as you wish, by having full access to
source code; third, the freedom to distribute a modified version and
thus help build the community.  Free software means you can study the
source and learn how such programs are written; it means you can port
it or improve it, and then share your work with others.

   If you redistribute GNU software, you may charge a distribution fee
or you may give it away, so long as you include the source code and the
GNU General Public License; see *Note What Is Copyleft::, for details.

   Other organizations distribute whatever free software happens to be
available.  By contrast, the Free Software Foundation concentrates on
the development of new free software, working towards a GNU system
complete enough to eliminate the need to use a proprietary system.

   Besides developing GNU, the FSF distributes GNU software and manuals
for a distribution fee, and accepts gifts (tax-deductible in the U.S.)
to support GNU development.  Most of the FSF's funds come from its
distribution service.

   The Board of the Foundation is: Richard M. Stallman, President;
Robert J. Chassell, Secretary/Treasurer; Gerald J. Sussman,
Harold Abelson, and Leonard H. Tower Jr., Directors.


What Is Copyleft?

   The simplest way to make a program free is to put it in the public
domain, uncopyrighted.  But this permits proprietary modified versions,
which deny others the freedom to redistribute and modify; such versions
undermine the goal of giving freedom to *all* users.  To prevent this,
"copyleft" uses copyrights in a novel manner.  Typically, copyrights
take away freedoms; copyleft preserves them.  It is a legal instrument
that requires those who pass on a program to include the rights to use,
modify, and redistribute the code; the code and the freedoms become
legally inseparable.

   The copyleft used by the GNU Project is made from the combination of
a regular copyright notice and the "GNU General Public License" (GPL).
The GPL is a copying license which basically says that you have the
aforementioned freedoms.  An alternate form, the "GNU Library General
Public License" (LGPL), applies to a few (but not most) GNU libraries.
This license permits linking the libraries into proprietary executables
under certain conditions.  The appropriate license is included in each
GNU source code distribution and in many manuals.  Printed copies are
available upon request.

   We strongly encourage you to copyleft your programs and
documentation, and we have made it as simple as possible for you to do
so.  The details on how to apply either form of GNU Public License
appear at the end of each license.


What Is the Hurd?

   The Hurd is a collection of server processes that run on top of
Mach, a free message-passing microkernel developed at CMU.  The Hurd
and Mach together form the kernel of the GNU operating system.  The GNU
C Library implements the Unix "system call" interface by sending
messages to Hurd servers as appropriate.

   The Hurd allows users to create and share useful projects without
knowing much about the internal workings of the system--projects that
might never have been attempted without freely available source, a
well-designed interface, and a multiple server design.  The Hurd is
thus like other expandable GNU software, e.g. Emacs and GUILE.

   Currently, there are free ports of the Mach kernel to the 386 PC,
the DEC PMAX workstation, and several other machines, with more in
progress, including the Amiga, PA-RISC HP 700, & DEC Alpha-3000.
Contact us if you want to help with one of these or start your own.
Porting the GNU Hurd & GNU C Library is easy (easier than porting GNU
Emacs, certainly easier than porting the compiler) once a Mach port to
a particular platform exists.  Right now we are using the University of
Utah's Mach distribution which we hope will be unified with the
distribution produced by the Open Software Foundation.

   The first test version of the Hurd was just released.  *Note GNUs
Flashes::, for a report on recent progress.

   We need help with significant Hurd-related projects.  Experienced
system programmers who are interested should send mail to
`gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu'.  Porting the Mach kernel or the GNU C Library to
new systems is another way to help.

   You can get the Hurd from `prep.ai.mit.edu', our FTP distribution
site, along with complete binaries for an i386 GNU system.  We will not
be distributing these things on CD-ROM until they are more stable.


What Is a GNU/Linux system?

by Richard M. Stallman

   A GNU/Linux system is a system which is a combination of Linux and

   Linux is a kernel, compatible with the Unix kernel, written by Linus

   GNU is a Unix-like operating system.  We started the GNU Project in
1984 with the aim of bringing such a system into existence.  A Unix-like
operating system consists of many components; we had to obtain each of
the important components somehow.  The job was so large that many of
the people who sympathized with the goal were discouraged from
attempting it, but we decided we would reach the goal no matter how
long it took.

   We found some components already available as free software--for
example, the X Window System and TeX.  Naturally we decided to use
them, since the job was big enough even with short cuts.  We obtained
other components by helping to convince their developers to make them
free--for example, the Berkeley network utilities.

   The rest of components, we had to write.  These include GNU Emacs,
the GNU C & C++ compilers & libraries, Bash, Ghostscript, Groff, & many

   All of these various components--those we wrote, those we helped make
free, and those we found already available--together make up the GNU

   Until recently, users couldn't run the GNU system, because one part
(the kernel; *note What Is the Hurd::.) was not yet ready.  (We made
the first test release just recently.)  However, for a couple of years
now, it has been possible to put together the Linux kernel and the
almost-complete GNU system, resulting in a complete Unix-like free
operating system suitable for actual use.

   While commonly referred to as "Linux systems", we prefer the term
"Linux-based GNU systems," or "GNU/Linux systems" for short, since
these systems are mostly the same as *the* GNU system.  This gives
Linus credit for the kernel that he wrote, while still indicating that
these systems *as a whole* are essentially variants of the GNU system.

   We also occasionally use the term "GNU/Hurd system" to emphasize that
we mean a version of the GNU system which uses the Hurd rather than

   We think it is proper to give the GNU Project credit for making the
free Unix-like system that it set out for a decade ago.  But there is a
more important reason for friends of GNU to use names like "Linux-based
GNU system" instead of "Linux system."  This is to help spread the GNU
Project's philosophical idea: that there is ethical importance in
freeing users to share software and cooperate in improving it; that free
software belongs to a community, and people who benefit from the
community should feel a moral obligation to help build the community
when they have a chance.

   When users install a system which they call "Linux," they can easily
miss ever seeing the GNU idea.  When businesses promote a system and
call it "Linux," they can easily avoid bringing the GNU idea to users'
attention.  And if the GNU idea is not widely known, fewer people will
write free software.

   A conference was recently announced on the topic of developing "Linux
applications"; although the conference is about using the GNU system,
the conference announcement did not mention GNU.

   The announcement does not even hint that there is any ethical reason
to contribute to free software.  On the contrary, it offers a panel
entitled, "Licenses and licensing--I don't want to give away my
application!!!"  (The three `!' marks appear in the announcement).
Even the title encourages people writing new software (which could
enhance all free operating systems) to make it proprietary instead,
thus contributing nothing to the free software community.

   It would be harder to express that attitude if everyone knew that the
topic is a variant of the GNU system.  It is up to you and us to make
sure they know.  To do that, we have to inform people using variant GNU
systems that that is what they are doing.

   So please use the term "Linux-based GNU system" or "GNU/Linux" when
you talk about a system which is a combination of Linux and GNU.  At
first, it may feel strange to go against the flow, but think how much
more "against the flow" it was to start writing a free operating system.
We did it, and you can do it.


FSF and Debian Separate Amicably

   Ian Murdock started the effort to put together Debian, a Linux-based
GNU system designed to be easy to install & upgrade.  He asked for &
got the FSF's sponsorship for the project, hoping that besides being
useful in its own right, it would give the FSF experience in packaging
up a complete GNU system.

   This March, Murdock stepped down as the head of Debian, having become
too busy with other work.  The new team head did not want FSF
sponsorship.  As a result, the FSF is no longer a sponsor of Debian.
We wish the situation were otherwise.  However, we are working together
on some design issues.

   We have not yet decided whether the FSF will distribute a CD-ROM of
Debian, since we don't know if that would achieve enough of the goals
that we previously hoped for as sponsors of the system.

Some Bad News about Pine

   Pine is a simple electronic mail reader for beginning users, which
we have included on our Source CDs since 1995.

   In March of 1996, the Pine developers released a new version with
new usage restrictions.  The new terms do not permit everyone to
redistribute, and do not permit distribution of modified versions at
all.  Either restriction would be enough to prevent Pine from being
free software.

   The previous versions of Pine remain free; however, no substantial
program is bug-free, and every program needs to be maintained.  So this
April the Free Software Foundation recruited a team of volunteers to
carry on development of the free version of Pine, starting from the
last available free release (3.91).

   Forking a program is unfortunate; people should try their best to
work together before giving up and working separately.  So before
embarking on separate development, we tried our best to persuade the old
developers to make their work free software once again.  In the end,
though, they rejected our plea.

   The new team has just started, and has yet to do a release.
However, you can report bugs in Pine 3.91 to them at the address
`bug-pine@prep.ai.mit.edu', so they can be fixed in the next release of
the free alternative version of Pine.

First Free Software Conference

   In February, the FSF hosted the First Conference on Freely
Redistributable Software at the Cambridge (MA) Marriott.  The
Conference drew 185 attendees from 14 countries, with Linus Torvalds
and Richard M. Stallman as the keynote speakers, eight tutorials,
eleven technical presentations, and a half dozen BoFs.

   The Conference Proceedings have been published and are available
from the FSF while supplies last (see the FSF Order Form,
in the centerfold).

   The FSF is currently negotiating with groups in Europe and the U.S.
concerning co-sponsorship of future events.

   The FSF thanks everyone who made this Conference a success,
especially the program committee: Peter H. Salus (Chair), Lisa A. Bloch,
Robert J. Chassell, Chris Demetriou, Marshall Kirk McKusick, Rich Morin,
Eric S. Raymond, & Vernor Vinge.  We also thank John Gilmore & Red Hat
Software for subsidizing several of the European presenters, Stuart
McRobert of Imperial College, London for producing the Proceedings, &
Cygnus Support for donating the funds to print them.

   The technical presentations were:

   * Automated Management of an Heterogeneous Distributed Production
     Environment - Ph. Defert et al., CERN

   * Freely Redistributable Software across the Internet - Current
     Practice and Future Directions to Overcome the Bandwidth Crisis -
     Neil Smith, University of Kent at Canterbury

   * Cheap Operating Systems Research and Teaching with Linux - Victor
     Yodaiken, New Mexico Tech

   * Freely Redistributable Instead of Commercial Software - Yugoslav
     Experience - Radivoje Zonji'c, Belgrade University

   * Linux on the OSF Mach3 Microkernel - Franois Barbou des Places,
     OSF Research Institute, Grenoble and Cambridge

   * Internationalization in the GNU Project - Ulrich Drepper,
     University of Karlsruhe

   * Perceptions - An Implementation of a Medical Information Support
     Environment with Freely Distributable Software - 
     Drs. Greg W. Wettstein & Paul S.  Etzell, Roger Maris Cancer Center

   * The RPM Packaging System - Marc Ewing & Erik Troan, Red Hat

   * Coordinating Joint Cost/No-Cost Rights for Software Developed with
     SBIR Funding - Philip A. Wilsey & Dale E. Martin, University of

   * Licensing Alternatives for Freely Redistributable Software - 
     L. Peter Deutsch, Aladdin Enterprises

   There will be a second conference, co-sponsored by Cygnus Support, in
February, 1997.  See the Web site at `http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu' or
contact `gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu' later this year for more information.



     *Strive for perfection in everything.  Take the best that exists
     and make it better.  If it doesn't exist, create it.  Accept
     nothing nearly right or good enough.*

     - Sir Henry Royce, co-founder of Rolls-Royce



GNUs Flashes

   * Hurd Test Release!   (Also *note What Is the Hurd::.)

     We are pleased to announce the first public test release of the
     Hurd, version 0.0; it is very preliminary, and we don't recommend
     you try it unless you are in the mood to experiment.  We are
     distributing it only by FTP until it becomes more stable.

     Much work remains to be done on reliability, efficiency, and on
     user-level features to take advantage of the underlying
     capabilities.  We're making rapid progress on these tasks, and we
     plan to make further releases fairly often.

   * Preliminary GNU System Released!

     The first test release of the Hurd has enabled us to release a
     complete GNU system in binary form, for 32-bit PC clones.  Like
     the Hurd itself, this system release is preliminary, recommended
     for experimentation only, and available only by FTP.  We have thus
     come in sight of the goal which the GNU project was founded to
     achieve.  We will actually reach that goal when the system becomes
     reliable enough that we can recommend it for real use.

   * www.gnu.ai.mit.edu

     The GNU Project now has a site on the World Wide Web at URL:
     `http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu'.  We would like to thank Networks
     On-Line (URL: `http://www.nol.net') for donating use of the
     hardware & Internet connection, and their staff for setting up the
     machine.  We would also like to thank Phil Nelson and Len Tower
     for being the site's webmasters.  They are reachable at

   * New Source Code CD!   (See *Note July 1996 Source Code CD-ROMs::)

     We have released the July 1996 (Edition 8) Source Code CD-ROM.
     Once again, it is a two disk set.  It includes several new
     programs: Automake, `enscript', Exim, `gcal', Generic NQS,
     `geomview', GNAT, GNUMATH, ID Utils, Inetutils, Karma, Lynx,
     Maxima, Miscfiles, Smail, TIFF, and WN.  *Note GNU Software::, for
     more information about these packages.  Also on the CD-ROMs are
     full distributions of X11R6.1, MIT Scheme, Emacs, GCC, and current
     versions of all other GNU Software.

   * GNU Miscellaneous Files Distribution

     We have just released the GNU Miscellaneous Files Distribution,
     which is a collection of non-crucial but useful files.  All the
     files in version 1.0 have come from BSD, but files from other
     sources are eagerly solicited.  Please send bug reports, as well as
     suggestions about new files to include to
     `bug-gnu-utils@prep.ai.mit.edu'.  See the entry in *Note GNU
     Software Now Available::, for more information.

   * Free Java for Linux Machines on the way!

     Eric S. Raymond maintains a Linux "HOWTO" for running Java on Linux
     machines, including information about freely available Java
     software.  See `http://sunsite.unc.edu/mdw/HOWTO/Java-HOWTO.html'
     for information.

   * Give to GNU the United Way!

     As a 501(c)3 tax-exempt organization, the FSF is eligible to
     receive United Way funds.  When donating to United Way, one can
     specify that all or part of the donation be directed to the FSF.
     On the donor form, check the "Specific Requests" box and include
     the sentence, "Send my gift to the Free Software Foundation, 59
     Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111."

   * Tapes and MS-DOS Diskettes No Longer Available from the FSF

     We no longer offer tapes or MS-DOS diskettes due to very low

   * GNU Software Works on MS-DOS   (Also *note GNU Software::.)

     GNU Emacs 19 and many other GNU programs have been ported to
     MS-DOS for i386/i486/Pentium machines.  We ship binaries & sources
     on the *Note Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM::.  We will ship
     binaries & sources on the *Note MS-DOS/Windows Book with CD-ROM::,
     when it is available.

   * California's Department of Water Resources to use GNU GPL

     The Department of Water Resources (DWR) of the State of California
     plans to use the GNU General Public License to protect a numerical
     model, the "Delta Simulation Model 2" (DSM2), which is used to
     calculate flows, water quality, and particle movement in a tidal

     The DWR says that they wish to ensure that `DSM2 remain freely
     available to all who wish to use and modify the code for the
     benefit of the entire estuary community.  The GPL is considered to
     be a practical way to achieve this goal.'

   * New Free Postscript Fonts Available!

     A commercial font supplier (URW++, of Hamburg, Germany) has
     released a commercial-quality set of the 35 standard Postscript
     Type 1 scalable fonts with the GPL.  These sets include
     equivalents of the following type faces:

     *Serif:* 	          Bookman, New Century Schoolbook, Palatino,
     *Sans-serif:*        Avant Garde, Helvetica, Helvetica Narrow; 	
     *Serif, monospace:*  Courier;
     *Script:*            Zapf Chancery; and 	
     *Symbolic:*          Symbol, Zapf Dingbats.  

     All but the symbolic fonts are available in plain, bold, italic
     (or oblique), and bold italic (or bold oblique) variants.  The
     fonts are available in .PFB format (a standard Type 1 binary
     format originally used on PCs); the metrics are available in .AFM
     and .PFM formats for use by desktop publishing applications.

     The fonts are included in the most recent release of GNU
     Ghostscript, and are also available packaged separately.  They
     replace the lower quality fonts previously released with

   * MULE Merge Almost Complete

     MULE is the Multi-Lingual Emacs developed by Ken'ichi Handa at the
     Electro-Technical Lab in Tsukuba, Japan.  Handa has readied the
     code for merging into Emacs and we expect to complete the merge

   * GNU Emacs 19.32   (Also *note GNU Software::.)

     We have just released Emacs 19.32.  It mostly fixes bugs, but it
     has a few new features.  The most noticeable one is that marking a
     region with the mouse now leaves the region highlighted at least
     until the next input event.  Also, a new timer system lets you
     efficiently arrange to call a Lisp function at a particular time,
     and mouse tracking is much faster and more reliable.

     Support for MS-DOS and Windows 95 is greatly improved.  You can now
     compile Emacs with DJGPP version 2; asynchronous subprocesses now
     work on Windows 95; and many additional Lisp packages now work on

   * Utah Flux Project Software

     Fluke, to be the base of the Flux OS, is a new "nanokernel."
     Design documentation, API documentation, & an experimental
     prototype are available.  See the Web site or write to

     The Flux OS Toolkit is a framework & set of easily reusable
     modules to provide infrastructure needed to build OS components.
     To get an x86 alpha release, email
     `oskit-users-request@cs.utah.edu', or see the Web site.

     Mach 4(x86) is a version of the Mach kernel which increases Mach
     3's ease of use & practicality in a PC environment; has a much
     simpler GNU-style build environment; boots using GNU/Linux,
     NetBSD, FreeBSD, or Mach boot loaders; has source-compatibility
     with almost all Linux device drivers; and supports the Lites
     server.  Utah provides sources & pre-built binaries for the kernel
     and Lites server, & the compiler tools to build Mach 4 under
     GNU/Linux, NetBSD, or FreeBSD.  To get on the list, send mail to

     Lites is a usable Mach-based Unix single server based on 4.4
     BSD-Lite, originally done by CMU & HUT.  x86 Lites supports binary
     compatibility with GNU/Linux, NetBSD, & FreeBSD, & groks Linux
     filesystems.  Utah distributes the current Lites version, with
     binaries for x86 & PA-RISC.  The PA version runs BSD/ELF & most
     HP-UX binaries.

     OMOS is a fully programmable class server/linker/loader using
     Scheme as its meta-language & the BFD package for portability.
     PA-RISC/SOM & x86/a.out are supported.

     FTP to `flux.cs.utah.edu:/flux' or see the Web page:
     `http://www.cs.utah.edu/projects/flux/' to get them.  Send mail to
     `flux-dist@cs.utah.edu' or phone +1-801-585-3271 for more

   * New Release of GNU Make

     GNU `make' 3.75 runs native on three new ports since version 3.74:
     AmigaDOS, VMS, and Windows NT/Windows95.

   * Lynx now GPLed

     Lynx, the popular text-only Web browser is now distributed under
     the terms of the GNU GPL.  For more information, see the Web site
     at `http://www.ukans.edu/'.

   * New/Updated Manuals since Last Bulletin   (See *Note

     We recently published the `GNU Awk Users' Guide' by Arnold Robbins,
     which is a greatly expanded and rewritten version of our old `GAWK
     Manual'.  We have a new edition of the Emacs Manual, for version
     19.32, which describes changes since Emacs 19.29.  Our `GNU Make
     Manual' is also a new edition with bug-fixes and additional
     information.  Our `Using and Porting GCC' manual will soon be
     available in a lay-flat, bound edition.


Free Software Redistributors Donate

   The SNOW 2.1 CD producers added the words "Includes $5 donation to
the FSF" to the front of their CD.  Potential buyers will know just how
much of the price is for the FSF & how much is for the redistributor.

   The Sun Users Group Deutschland has made it even clearer: their CD
says, "Price 90 DM, + 12 DM donation to the FSF."

   ASCII Corporation (Japan) has also donated to the FSF and plans to
add a donation to the price of their next GNU software CD-ROM.

   Austin Code Works, a free software redistributor, supports free
software development by giving the FSF 20% of the selling price for the
GNU software CDs they produce & sell.

   TOHDO-SHA is donating 400 yen to the FSF for each copy of `The GNU
Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, Japanese Edition' sold at bookstores in

   CQ Publishing made a large donation from the sales of their GAWK
book in Japanese, and Specialized Systems Consultants, Inc. is donating
3% of the profits from selling "Effective AWK Programming", by Arnold
Robbins.  Walnut Creek CDROM gives us part of their selling price every

   In the long run, the success of free software depends on how much
new free software people develop.  Free software distribution offers an
opportunity to raise funds for such development in an ethical way.
These redistributors have made use of the opportunity.  Many others let
it go to waste.

   You can help promote free software development by convincing
for-a-fee redistributors to contribute--either by doing development
themselves or by donating to development organizations (the FSF and

   The way to convince distributors to contribute is to demand and
expect this of them.  This means choosing among distributors partly by
how much they give to free software development.  Then you can show
distributors they must compete to be the one who gives the most.

   To make this work, you must insist on numbers that you can compare,
such as, "We will give ten dollars to the Foobar project for each disk
sold." A vague commitment, such as "A portion of the profits is
donated," doesn't give you a basis for comparison.  Even a precise
fraction "of the profits from this disk" is not very meaningful, since
creative accounting and unrelated business decisions can greatly alter
what fraction of the sales price counts as profit.

   Also, press developers for firm information about what kind of
development they do or support.  Some kinds make much more long-term
difference than others.  For example, maintaining a separate version of
a GNU program contributes very little; maintaining a program on behalf
of the GNU Project contributes much.  Easy new ports contribute little,
since someone else would surely do them; difficult ports such as adding
a new CPU to the GNU compiler or Mach contribute more; major new
features & programs contribute the most.

   By establishing the idea that supporting further development is "the
proper thing to do" when distributing free software for a fee, we can
assure a steady flow of resources for making more free software.


Help from Free Software Companies

   When choosing a free software business, ask those you are
considering how much they do to assist free software development,
e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing
free software improvements themselves for general use.  By basing your
decision partially on this factor, you can help encourage those who
profit from free software to contribute to its growth.

   Wingnut (SRA's special GNU support group) regularly donates a part
of its income to the FSF to support the development of new GNU
programs.  Listing them here is our way of thanking them.  Wingnut has
made a pledge to donate 10% of their income to the FSF, and has
purchased several Deluxe Distribution packages in Japan.  Also see
*Note Cygnus Matches Donations!::.

        Wingnut Project
        Software Research Associates, Inc.
        1-1-1 Hirakawa-cho, Chiyoda-ku
        Tokyo 102, Japan
        Phone:  (+81-3)3234-2611
        Fax:    (+81-3)3942-5174
        E-mail: `info-wingnut@sra.co.jp'
        WWW: `http://www.sra.co.jp/public/sra/product/wingnut/'


Free Software Support

   The Free Software Foundation does not provide technical support.  Our
mission is developing software, because that is the most time-efficient
way to increase what free software can do.  We leave it to others to
earn a living providing support.  We see programmers as providing a
service, much as doctors and lawyers do now; both medical and legal
knowledge are freely redistributable, but their practitioners charge
for service.

   The GNU Service Directory is a list of people who offer support and
other consulting services.  It is `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/SERVICE' on a GNU
FTP host (listed in *Note How to Get GNU Software::), on the World Wide
Web at URL `http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/mirror/prep/service.html', in the
file `etc/SERVICE' in the GNU Emacs distribution, and the file
`SERVICE' in the GCC distribution.  Contact us to get a copy or to be
listed in it.  Those service providers who share their income with the
FSF are listed in *Note Help from Free Software Companies::.

   If you find a deficiency in any GNU software, we want to know.  We
have many Internet mailing lists for bug reports, announcements, and
questions.  They are also gatewayed into USENET news as the `gnu.*'
newsgroups.  You can request a list of the mailing lists from either
address on the top menu.

   When we receive a bug report, we usually try to fix the problem.
While our bug fixes may seem like individual assistance, they are not;
they are part of preparing a new improved version.  We may send you a
patch for a bug so that you can help us test the fix and ensure its
quality.  If your bug report does not evoke a solution from us, you may
still get one from another user who reads our bug report mailing lists.
Otherwise, use the Service Directory.

   Please do not ask us to help you install software or learn how to use
it--but do tell us how an installation script fails or where
documentation is unclear.

   When choosing a service provider, ask those you are considering how
much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing
money to free software development or by writing free software
improvements themselves for general use.  By basing your decision
partially on this factor, you can encourage those who profit from free
software to contribute to its growth.


What Is the LPF?

   The League for Programming Freedom (LPF) aims to protect the freedom
to write software.  This freedom is threatened by "look-and-feel"
interface copyright lawsuits and by software patents.

   The League is a grass-roots organization of professors, students,
business people, programmers, users, & even software companies
dedicated to bringing back the freedom to write programs.  The League
isn't opposed to the legal system that Congress intended--copyright on
individual programs.  The League aims to reverse recent changes made by
judges in response to special interests.

   Membership dues in the League are $42 per year for programmers,
managers, and professionals; $10.50 for students; $21 for others.

   To join, please send a check and the following information:

   * Your name and phone numbers (home, work, or both).

   * The address to use for League mailings, a few each year (please
     indicate whether it is your home address or your work address).

   * The company you work for, and your position.

   * Your email address, so the League can contact you for political
     action.  (If you don't want to be contacted for this, please say
     so, but please provide your email address anyway.)

   * Please mention anything about you which would enable your
     endorsement of the League to impress the public.

   * Please say whether you would like to help with League activities.

   * The League is not connected with the Free Software Foundation, and
is not concerned with the issue of free software.*  The FSF supports the
League because, like any software developer smaller than Microsoft, it
is endangered by software patents and interface copyrights.  You are in
danger, too!  It would be easy to ignore the problem until you or your
employer is sued, but it is more prudent to organize before that

   If you haven't made up your mind yet, write to the League for more

        League for Programming Freedom
        One Kendall Square - #143
        P.O. Box 9171
        Cambridge, MA   02139
        Electronic-Mail: `lpf@uunet.uu.net'
        World Wide Web: `http://www.lpf.org/'
        FTP: `ftp.uu.net:/doc/lpf'


News from the LPF

by Dean Anderson, President, League for Programming Freedom

Statement on Supreme Court Decision

   The recent Supreme Court action in `Lotus v. Borland' represents a
victory for Borland, the League, developers, and users.  While we wish
the Supreme Court was more specific and had provided a written opinion,
the Supreme Court tie allows the First Circuit decision to stand as law
for the First Circuit, and as an "authoritative reference" for other
Circuits.  Essentially, the action means that one cannot own the user
interface to programs.

   This action is a win for users because their investment in learning
a user interface can be preserved when they change vendors.  It will be
more difficult to create software monopolies based on claiming an
exclusive right to a user interface.  This decision will promote
competition in the software industry as software companies will now
compete to provide better and cheaper software which speaks the
languages that users already know.

   The League can now focus its attention on the software patent
problem.  Software patents are now the major threat to software
developers, and to users and the general public as prices are driven up
by legal and licensing costs.  Software innovations which would improve
our quality of life may be blocked by patent disputes and licensing
quagmires.  As people become more dependent on computer networks and
software, the software patent issue will become more critical.

Tell a Friend about the LPF

   The user interface copyright battle was largely fought in the
courtroom, and that involved some key moments of focus and
coordination.  But since we will probably be battling in Congress over
software patents, our approach will have to be somewhat different.
Therefore, it is very important to get more members.  Membership is
what will get us the most clout with Congress.  In the next year, we
will need to gear up to promote our ideas more widely, both inside &
outside of the software world.  Your help & support is very important
to the success of this effort, so encourage everyone you know to join
the LPF!

   Keep writing letters!  Write the LPF, your representatives,
newspapers, journals, and others.  Be sure to send us copies of the
articles you wrote, and the publications to which they were sent.  See
our Web page at `http://www.lpf.org/' for more info on how to help the
LPF (send suggestions to `webmasters@lpf.org').


Help the GNU Translation Project

   GNU is going international!  Our Translation Project gets users,
translators, and maintainers together, so GNU will gradually speak many
native languages.

   To complete the GNU Translation Project, we need many people who
like their own language and write it well, and who are also able to
synergize with other translators speaking the same language as part of
"translation teams".

   If you want to start a new team, or want more information on
existing teams or other aspects of this project, write
`gnu-translation@gnu.ai.mit.edu'.  Also see *Note GNU Software::, for
information about `gettext', the tool the GNU Translation Project uses
to help translators and programmers.


GNU & Other Free Software in Japan

   Mieko (`h-mieko@sra.co.jp') and Nobuyuki Hikichi
(`hikichi@sra.co.jp') continue to volunteer for the GNU Project in
Japan.  They translate each issue of this Bulletin into Japanese and
distribute it widely, along with their translation of Version 2 of the
GNU General Public License.  This translation of the GPL is authorized
by the FSF and is available by anonymous FTP from `ftp.sra.co.jp' in
`/pub/gnu/local-fix/GPL2-j'.  They are working on a formal translation
of the GNU Library General Public License.  They also solicit donations
and offer GNU software consulting.

   `nepoch' (the Japanese version of Epoch) & MULE are available and
widely used in Japan.  MULE (the MULtilingual Enhancement of GNU Emacs)
can handle many character sets at once.  Its features are being merged
into the principal version of Emacs.  *Note GNU Software::, for more
details on MULE.  The FSF does not distribute `nepoch', but MULE is
available on the *Note July 1996 Source Code CD-ROMs::.  FTP it from
`sh.wide.ad.jp' in `/JAPAN/mule', or `etlport.etl.go.jp' in `/pub/mule'.

   An anonymous user in Japan has redistributed GNU material that was
left over from an FSF Tokyo seminar.  He bought these items for reader
presents in magazines of Gijitsu Hyouron-Sha, a publishing company.

   The Village Center, Inc. prints a Japanese translation (ISBN
4-938704-02-1) of the `GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual' and puts the
Texinfo source on various bulletin boards.  They also publish Nobuyuki &
Mieko's `Think GNU' (ISBN 4-938704-10-2); this may be the first non-FSF
copylefted publication in Japan.  They also redistribute GNU CD-ROMs at
this bookstore:

        Shosen Grande
        1-3-2 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku
        Tokyo 101,   Japan
        Telephone: 03-3295-0011

Part of Village Center's profits are donated to the FSF.  Their address

        Village Center, Inc.
        3-2 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku
        Tokyo 101,   Japan
        Telephone: 03-3221-3520
        URL:  http://www.villagecenter.co.jp/
        URL:  http://www.villagecenter.co.jp/gnu.html 

        for GNU products info handling by Village Center

   Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd. has printed Japanese
translations of the `GNU Make Manual' (ISBN 4-7952-9627-X) and the
`GAWK Manual' (ISBN 4-7952-9672-8).  Their address is:

        Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd.
        Nichibou Bldg. 2F
        1-2-2 Sarugaku-cho, Chiyoda-ku
        Tokyo 101,   Japan
        Telephone: 03-3291-4581

   There is a mailing list in Japan to discuss both hardware & software
which is under the GNU General Public License.  It provides information
about making your own computer system.  The main language of the list is
Japanese.  If you are interested in getting information or having
discussions in English, ask `mka@apricot.juice.or.jp' or

   Many groups in Japan now distribute GNU software.  They include JUG,
a PC user group; ASCII, a periodical and book publisher; the Fujitsu FM
Towns users group; and SRA's special GNU users' support group, Wingnut,
who also purchased the first Deluxe Distribution package in Japan (also
*note Help from Free Software Companies::.).  (Since then, there have
been several other purchases of Deluxe Distribution packages in Japan.)

   It is easy to place an order directly with the FSF from Japan, thus
funding new software.  To get an FSF Order Form written in Japanese, ask
`japan-fsf-orders@prep.ai.mit.edu'.  We encourage you to buy our
software CDs: for example, 140 CD-ROM orders at the corporate rate
allow the FSF to hire a programmer for a year to write more free

   Many programs in the field of parallel processing and knowledge
processing were released to the public under the name of "ICOT Free
Software (IFS)" in the Fifth Generation Computer Systems project.  IFS
was an 11-year Japanese project started in 1982 and FGCS was its 2-year
follow-on project.

   As of the end of March 1996, over 3,900 persons have accessed the
ICOT Web page, and almost 21,000 files have been transferred since the
first release in 1992.  As ICOT was wound up in June, 1995, maintenance
and further development of IFS was transferred to the Japan Information
Processing Development Center (JIPDEC).  JIPDEC established the
Research Institute for Advanced Information Technology (AITEC).  AITEC
not only maintains, develops, and distributes IFS, but also develops
parallel knowledge processing software in collaboration with several
Japanese universities.  Newly developed software will be released to
the public with conditions similar to those of IFS.

   For now, the domain name will remain `icot.or.jp'.  For more
information, please see URL `http://www.icot.or.jp/'.


Forthcoming GNUs

   Information about the current status of released GNU programs can be
found in *Note GNU Software::.  Here is some news of future plans.

   * GNU C Library   (For current status, *note GNU Software::.)

     Version 2.0 of the GNU C library is now in test release.  GNU/Hurd
     support is now fully functional.  Roland McGrath and Ulrich
     Drepper have been working steadily on support for GNU/Linux; the
     new GNU C library will eventually be the new standard system C
     library on GNU/Linux, `libc.so.6'.  David Mosberger-Tang and
     Richard Henderson have contributed Alpha and 64-bit ELF support
     along with many fixes and improvements; the next major release of
     Linux/Alpha will use the GNU C library as the sole system library.
     Andreas Schwab has contributed Linux/m68k support.

     This release adds several new functions traditionally found in
     Unix systems & some small new GNU extensions, as well as major new
     internationalization support.  Ulrich Drepper has made invaluable
     contributions to the library in recent months, including new
     floating-point printing/reading functions that are perfectly
     accurate & much faster than the old code; an `nsswitch.conf'
     mechanism for versatile name database lookup, paving the way for
     easy plug-in support of protocols like NIS; and a complete set of
     internationalization features including POSIX.2-compatible `locale'
     & `localedef' programs, & catalogs for displaying program messages
     in languages other than English.  (Ulrich presented a paper on his
     internationalization work at the *Note First Conference on Freely
     Redistributable Software::; to order a copy of the Proceedings,
     see the FSF Order Form, in the centerfold).

     The library now builds as a shared library for systems that use
     the ELF object file format.  Included is the run-time loader
     (`ld.so') which sets up the shared libraries when a program runs;
     it works now with the Hurd & Linux kernels, and is easy to port to
     other ELF systems such as SVR4 & Solaris 2.

   * GNU Emacs   (For current status, *note GNU Software::.)

     Future versions of Emacs will: save the undo history in a file
     (which allows you to undo older changes in the history) and also
     have support for variable-width fonts, wide character sets, and
     the world's major languages.  Our long term plan is to move it in
     the direction of a WYSIWYG word processor & make it easier for
     beginners to use.

   * GNUstep   (Also see "Objective-C Library" in *Note GNU Software::)

     OpenStep is an object-oriented application programming interface
     specification being proposed as an open object standard.  Since its
     announcement over two years ago, there has been much interest in a
     GNU implementation, named GNUstep.  Work has begun on GNUstep,
     starting with a library written in Objective-C.  Much remains to
     be done to bring this library close to the OpenStep
     specifications.  Volunteers should contact `office@gnustep.org'.
     Check `http://www.gnustep.org/' for more info.

   * `recode'    (For current status, *note GNU Software::.)

     The next `recode' release should give more flexible control over
     encodings of charsets, offer MIME conversions, & handle ISO-10646
     (Unicode).  It will install a library & support files to help work
     towards internationalizing GNU.

   * GUILE

     GNU's Ubiquitous Extension Language is an SCM-based library which
     can be used to make any ordinary C program extensible (for SCM
     info, see "JACAL" in *Note GNU Software::).

     Also being developed are a POSIX.1 interface, an SCSH-like
     library, a module system, a Tk interface, & a byte-code
     interpreter; support for Emacs Lisp & a more C-like language is

   * `ptx'   (For current status, *note GNU Software::.)

     The next release of `ptx' should offer contextualized support for
     SGML texts as the first step towards a major overhaul for that

   * GNU Common Lisp   (For current status, *note GNU Software::.)

     Version 2.2 of GNU Common Lisp (GCL) was released in November '95.
     It now includes a graphical interface to the Tk widget system.
     All documentation is now Texinfo-based, with built-in regexp
     matching used to access the documentation.  A first pass at the
     Common Lisp condition system is also included.  Some new ports
     include DEC Alpha and ELF for GNU/Linux.  Volunteers to help with
     the move to the ANSI standard are most welcome; contact

   * C Interpreter

     We hope to add interpreter facilities to our compiler and
     debugger.  This task is partly finished.  GCC has generated byte
     code for all supported languages, but that support is in flux at
     this time.  A new effort to finish this work has begun.  To make
     this work usable, we need to enhance GDB to load the byte code
     dynamically.  We would also like support for compiling just a few
     selected functions in a file.  Due to limited resources, the FSF
     cannot fund this.  Interested volunteers should contact

   * GCC   (For current status, *note GNU Software::.)

     New front ends for GCC are being developed for Pascal and Chill.
     See the Fortran item in this article for news on that front end.
     See the GNAT item in *Note GNU Software::, for news on GNU Ada.

   * Fortran   (For info on `f2c' & GCC, *note GNU Software::.)

     The GNU Fortran (`g77') front end is stable, but more work is
     needed to bring its overall packaging, feature set, and
     performance up to the levels the Fortran community expects.  Tasks
     to be done include: improving documentation and diagnostics;
     speeding up compilation, especially for large, densely initialized
     data tables; completing existing support for `INTEGER*2',
     `INTEGER*8', and similar features; allowing intrinsics in
     `PARAMETER' statements; and providing debug information on
     `COMMON' and `EQUIVALENCE' variables.  We don't know when these
     things will be done, but hope some will be finished in the coming
     months.  You can speed progress by working on them or by offering

     A mailing list exists for announcements about `g77'.  To subscribe,
     ask `info-gnu-fortran-request@prep.ai.mit.edu'.  To contact the
     developer of `g77' or get current status, write or finger

   * Smalltalk   (For current status, *note GNU Software::.)

     The next release, version 1.2, is planned to use Autoconf.  It
     will have substantial performance improvements & memory requirement
     reductions, more control over memory allocation, ability to use the
     Smalltalk interpreter as a C callable library, better X Window
     System interfaces, ability to represent and manipulate C data
     structures in Smalltalk, conditional compilation facilities, large
     integer support, an advanced GUI-based class browsing system,
     better TCP/IP interfaces, exception support, weak references, &
     finalization support.  It will run on UNIX, DOS, & Windows NT.

  1. The Dictionary Project

     The FSF has a copy of the unabridged `Century Dictionary', now in
     the public domain, and we are planning to put it online.  We tried
     OCR, but it wasn't reliable enough.  Russell Nelson is
     coordinating the project.  Volunteers have entered close to fifty
     pages so far, but the project needs more help; to volunteer, send
     mail to `dictionary@gnu.ai.mit.edu' or contact the FSF.


GNU Software

   All our software is available via FTP; see *Note How to Get GNU
Software::.  We also offer *Note CD-ROMs::, and printed *Note
Documentation::, which includes manuals and reference cards.  In the
articles describing the contents of each medium, the version number
listed after each program name was current when we published this
Bulletin.  When you order a newer CD-ROM, some of the programs may be
newer and therefore the version number higher.  See the *note Free
Software Foundation Order Form::., for ordering information.

   Some of the contents of our FTP distributions are compressed.  We
have software on our FTP sites to uncompress these files.  Due to
patent troubles with `compress', we use another compression program,
`gzip'.  (Such prohibitions on software development are fought by the
League for Programming Freedom; *note What Is the LPF::., for details.)

   You may need to build GNU `make' before you build our other software.
Some vendors supply no `make' utility at all and some native `make'
programs lack the `VPATH' feature essential for using the GNU configure
system to its full extent.  The GNU `make' sources have a shell script
to build `make' itself on such systems.

   We welcome all bug reports and enhancements sent to the appropriate
electronic mailing list (*note Free Software Support::.).


Configuring GNU Software

We are using Autoconf, a uniform scheme for configuring GNU software
packages in order to compile them (see "Autoconf" and "Automake" below,
in this article).  The goal is to have all GNU software support the same
alternatives for naming machine and system types.

   Ultimately, it will be possible to configure and build the entire
system all at once, eliminating the need to configure each individual
package separately.

   You can also specify both the host and target system to build
cross-compilation tools.  Most GNU programs now use Autoconf-generated
configure scripts.


GNU Software Currently Available

For future programs and features, see *Note Forthcoming GNUs::.

   Key to cross reference:

        BinCD        December 1995 Binaries CD-ROM
        SrcCD        July 1996 Source CD-ROMs

[FSFman] shows that we sell a manual for that package.  [FSFrc] shows
we sell a reference card for that package.  To order them, see the
*note Free Software Foundation Order Form::.  *Note Documentation::,
for more information on the manuals.  Source code for each manual or
reference card is included with each package.

   * `acm'   (SrcCD)

     `acm' is a LAN-oriented, multiplayer, aerial combat simulation that
     runs under the X Window System.  Players engage in air to air
     combat against one another using heat seeking missiles and cannons.
     We are working on a more accurate simulation of real airplane
     flight characteristics.

   * Apache   (SrcCD)

     Apache is an HTTP server designed as a plug-in replacement for
     version 1.3 or 1.4 of the NCSA server.  It fixes many bugs in the
     NCSA server, includes many frequently requested new features, and
     has an API which allows it to be extended to meet users' needs
     more easily.

   * Autoconf   (SrcCD)

     Autoconf produces shell scripts which automatically configure
     source code packages.  These scripts adapt the packages to many
     kinds of Unix-like systems without manual user intervention.
     Autoconf creates a script for a package from a template file which
     lists the operating system features which the package can use, in
     the form of `m4' macro calls.  Autoconf requires GNU `m4' to
     operate, but the resulting configure scripts it generates do not.

   * Automake   (SrcCD)

     Automake is a tool for generating `Makefile.in's for use with
     Autoconf.  The generated makefiles are compliant with GNU Makefile

   * BASH   (SrcCD)

     GNU's shell, BASH (Bourne Again SHell), is compatible with the
     Unix `sh' and offers many extensions found in `csh' and `ksh'.
     BASH has job control, `csh'-style command history, command-line
     editing (with Emacs and `vi' modes built-in), and the ability to
     rebind keys via the `readline' library.  BASH conforms to the
     POSIX 1003.2-1992 standard.

   * `bc'   (SrcCD)

     `bc' is an interactive algebraic language with arbitrary precision
     numbers.  GNU `bc' follows the POSIX 1003.2-1992 standard with
     several extensions, including multi-character variable names, an
     `else' statement, and full Boolean expressions.  The RPN
     calculator `dc' is now distributed as part of the same package,
     but GNU `bc' is not implemented as a `dc' preprocessor.

   * BFD   (BinCD, SrcCD)

     The Binary File Descriptor library allows a program which operates
     on object files (e.g., `ld' or GDB) to support many different
     formats in a clean way.  BFD provides a portable interface, so
     that only BFD needs to know the details of a particular format.
     One result is that all programs using BFD will support formats
     such as a.out, COFF, and ELF.  BFD comes with Texinfo source for a
     manual (not yet published on paper).

     At present, BFD is not distributed separately; it is included with
     packages that use it.

   * Binutils   (BinCD, SrcCD)

     Binutils includes these programs: `ar', `c++filt', `demangle',
     `gas', `gprof', `ld', `nlmconv', `nm', `objcopy', `objdump',
     `ranlib', `size', `strings', & `strip'.

     Binutils version 2 uses the BFD library.  The GNU assembler, `gas',
     supports the a29k, Alpha, H8/300, H8/500, HP-PA, i386, i960, m68k,
     m88k, MIPS, NS32K, SH, SPARC, Tahoe, Vax, and Z8000 CPUs, and
     attempts to be compatible with many other assemblers for Unix and
     embedded systems.  It can produce mixed C and assembly listings,
     and includes a macro facility similar to that in some other
     assemblers.  GNU's linker, `ld', emits source-line numbered error
     messages for multiply-defined symbols and undefined references,
     and interprets a superset of AT&T's Linker Command Language, which
     gives control over where segments are placed in memory.  `nlmconv'
     converts object files into Novell NetWare Loadable Modules.
     `objdump' can disassemble code for most of the CPUs listed above,
     and can display other data (e.g., symbols and relocations) from
     any file format read by BFD.

   * Bison   (BinCD, SrcCD)   [FSFman, FSFrc]

     Bison is an upwardly compatible replacement for the parser
     generator `yacc'.  Texinfo source for the `Bison Manual' and
     reference card are included; see *Note Documentation::.

     A recent policy change allows non-free programs to use
     Bison-generated parsers.

   * C Library   *See *Note Forthcoming GNUs::*   (BinCD, SrcCD)  

     The GNU C library supports ANSI C-1989, POSIX 1003.1-1990 and most
     of the functions in POSIX 1003.2-1992.  It is upwardly compatible
     with 4.4BSD and includes many System V functions, plus GNU

     When used with the GNU Hurd, the C Library performs many functions
     of the Unix system calls directly.  Mike Haertel has written a
     fast `malloc' which wastes less memory than the old GNU version.
     The GNU regular-expression functions (`regex' and `rx') now nearly
     conform to the POSIX 1003.2 standard.

     GNU `stdio' lets you define new kinds of streams, just by writing a
     few C functions.  The `fmemopen' function uses this to open a
     stream on a string, which can grow as necessary.  You can define
     your own `printf' formats to use a C function you have written.
     For example, you can safely use format strings from user input to
     implement a `printf'-like function for another programming
     language.  Extended `getopt' functions are already used to parse
     options, including long options, in many GNU utilities.  Texinfo
     source for the `GNU C Library Reference Manual' is included (*note

     It runs on Sun-3 (SunOS 4.1), Sun-4 (SunOS 4.1 or Solaris 2), HP
     9000/300 (4.3BSD), SONY News 800 (NewsOS 3 or 4), MIPS DECstation
     (Ultrix 4), DEC Alpha (OSF/1), i386/i486/Pentium (GNU/Hurd,
     GNU/Linux, System V, SVR4, BSD, SCO 3.2, & SCO ODT 2.0), Sequent
     Symmetry i386 (Dynix 3), & SGI (Irix 4).

   * C++ Library   (BinCD, SrcCD)

     The GNU C++ library (libg++) contains an extensive collection of
     container and utility classes, including Obstacks,
     multiple-precision Integers and Rationals, Complex numbers,
     BitSets, and BitStrings.

     The distribution also includes the libstdc++ library.  This
     implements library facilities defined by the forthcoming ANSI/ISO
     C++ standard, including strings, the iostream library, and a port
     of the Standard Template Library.

   * Calc   (SrcCD)   [FSFman, FSFrc]

     Calc (written by Dave Gillespie in Emacs Lisp) is an extensible,
     advanced desk calculator & mathematical tool that runs as part of
     GNU Emacs.  You can use Calc as a simple four-function calculator,
     but it has many more features including: choice of algebraic or
     RPN (stack-based) entry; logarithmic, trigonometric, & financial
     functions; arbitrary precision; complex numbers; vectors;
     matrices; dates; times; infinities; sets; algebraic
     simplification; & differentiation & integration.  It outputs to
     `gnuplot', & comes with source for a manual & reference card
     (*note Documentation::.).

   * `cfengine'   (SrcCD)

     `cfengine' is used to maintain site-wide configuration of a
     heterogeneous Unix network using a simple high level language.  Its
     appearance is similar to `rdist', but allows many more operations
     to be performed automatically.  See Mark Burgess, "A Site
     Configuration Engine", `Computing Systems', Vol. 8, No. 3 (ask
     `office@usenix.org' how to get a copy).

   * Chess   (SrcCD)

     GNU Chess lets most modern computers play a full game of chess.  It
     has a plain terminal interface, a curses interface, & `xboard''s
     spiffy X Window interface.

     Recent improvements include fixes to the game analyzer, book, &
     hash table; smartening up draw & mate; improved thinking on
     opponent's time; Autoconf installation; a makefile for Windows NT
     compilation; forward pruning; unlimited quiescence captures;
     improved evaluation; improved null & time control logic; &

     Stuart Cracraft started GNU Chess.  Improvements & rewrites are
     from John Stanback, Cha Kong Sian, Mike McGann, et al.

     Send bugs to `bug-gnu-chess@prep.ai.mit.edu' & general comments to

   * CLISP   (SrcCD)

     CLISP is a Common Lisp implementation by Bruno Haible and Michael
     Stoll.  It mostly supports the Lisp described by `Common LISP: The
     Language (2nd edition)' and the ANSI Common Lisp standard.  CLISP
     includes an interpreter, a byte-compiler, a large subset of CLOS,
     a foreign language interface, and, for some machines, a screen
     editor.  The user interface language (English, German, French) can
     be chosen at run time.  Major packages that run in CLISP include
     CLX & Garnet.  CLISP needs only 2 MB of memory & runs on many
     microcomputers (including MS-DOS systems, OS/2, Windows NT, Amiga
     500-4000, and Acorn RISC PC) & Unix-like systems (GNU/Linux, Sun4,
     SVR4, SGI, HP-UX, DEC Alpha, NeXTStep, & others).

   * Common Lisp   *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.*   (SrcCD)

     GNU Common Lisp (GCL, formerly known as Kyoto Common Lisp) is a
     compiler & interpreter for Common Lisp.  GCL is very portable &
     extremely efficient on a wide class of applications, & compares
     favorably in performance with commercial Lisps on several large
     theorem-prover & symbolic algebra systems.  GCL supports the CLtL1
     specification but is moving towards the proposed ANSI standard.

     GCL compiles to C & then uses the native optimizing C compiler
     (e.g., GCC).  A function with a fixed number of args & one value
     turns into a C function of the same number of args, returning one
     value--so GCL is maximally efficient on such calls.  Its
     conservative garbage collector gives great freedom to the C
     compiler to put Lisp values in registers.  It has a source level
     Lisp debugger for interpreted code & displays source code in an
     Emacs window.  Its profiler (based on the C profiling tools)
     counts function calls & the time spent in each function.

     There is now a built-in interface to the Tk widget system.  It runs
     in a separate process, so users may monitor progress on Lisp
     computations or interact with running computations via a windowing

     There is also an Xlib interface via C (xgcl-2).  CLX runs with
     GCL, as does PCL (see "PCL" later in this article).

     GCL version 2.2 is released under the GNU Library General Public

   * CLX   (SrcCD)

     CLX is an X Window interface library for GCL.  This is separate
     from the built-in TK interface.

   * `cpio'   (SrcCD)

     `cpio' is an archive program with all the features of SVR4 `cpio',
     including support for the final POSIX 1003.1 `ustar' standard.
     `mt', a program to position magnetic tapes, is included with

   * CVS   (SrcCD)

     CVS is a version control system (like RCS or SCCS) which allows
     you to keep old versions of files (usually source code), keep a
     log of who, when, and why changes occurred, etc.  It handles
     multiple developers, multiple directories, triggers to
     enable/log/control various operations, and can work over a wide
     area network.  It does not handle build management or
     bug-tracking; these are handled by `make' and GNATS, respectively.

   * DejaGnu   (SrcCD)

     DejaGnu is a framework to test programs with a single front end
     for all tests.  DejaGnu's flexibility & consistency makes it easy
     to write tests.

     DejaGnu comes with `expect', which runs scripts to conduct dialogs
     with programs.

   * Diffutils   (SrcCD)

     GNU `diff' compares files showing line-by-line changes in several
     flexible formats.  It is much faster than traditional Unix
     versions.  The Diffutils package contains `diff', `diff3',
     `sdiff', & `cmp'.  Recent improvements include more consistent
     handling of character sets and a new `diff' option to do all
     input/output in binary; this is useful on some non-POSIX hosts.
     Plans for the Diffutils package include support for
     internationalization (e.g., error messages in Chinese) and for some
     non-Unix PC environments.

   * DJGPP   (BinCD)

     DJ Delorie has ported GCC/G++ (see "GCC" in this article) to i386s
     running MS-DOS.  DJGPP has a 32-bit i386 DOS extender with a
     symbolic debugger, development libraries, & ports of Bison,
     `flex', & Binutils.  Full source code is provided.  It needs at
     least 5MB of hard disk space to install & 512K of RAM to use.  It
     supports SVGA (up to 1024x768), XMS & VDISK memory allocation,
     `himem.sys', VCPI (e.g., QEMM, DESQview, & 386MAX), & DPMI (e.g.,
     Windows 3.x, OS/2, QEMM, & QDPMI).  DJGPP Version 2 was released
     in Feb 1996, & needs a DPMI environment; a free DPMI server is

     FTP from `ftp.simtel.net' in `/pub/simtelnet/gnu/djgpp/' (or
     another SimTel mirror site).

     Ask `listserv@delorie.com', to join a DJGPP users mailing list.

   * `dld'   (SrcCD)

     `dld' is a dynamic linker written by W. Wilson Ho.  Linking your
     program with the `dld' library allows you to dynamically load
     object files into the running binary.  `dld' supports a.out object
     types on the following platforms: Convex C-Series (BSD),
     i386/i486/Pentium (Linux), Sequent Symmetry i386 (Dynix 3), Sun-3
     (SunOS 3 & 4), Sun-4 (SunOS 4), & VAX (Ultrix).

   * `doschk'   (SrcCD)

     This program is a utility to help software developers ensure that
     their source file names are distinguishable on System V platforms
     with 14-character filenames and on MS-DOS systems with 8+3
     character filenames.

   * `ecc'   (SrcCD)

     `ecc' is a Reed-Solomon error correction checking library and
     sample program, which can correct three byte errors in a block of
     255 bytes and detect more severe errors.  Contact `fclim@acm.org'
     for more information.

   * `ed'   (SrcCD)

     `ed' is the standard text editor.  It is line-oriented and can be
     used interactively or in scripts.

   * Elib   (SrcCD)

     Elib is a small library of Emacs Lisp functions, including
     routines for using AVL trees and doubly-linked lists.

   * Elisp archive   (SrcCD)

     This is a snapshot of Ohio State's GNU Emacs Lisp FTP Archive.
     FTP it from `archive.cis.ohio-state.edu' in

   * Emacs   *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.*   [FSFman(s), FSFrc]

     In 1975, Richard Stallman developed the first Emacs, an extensible,
     customizable real-time display editor & computing environment.
     GNU Emacs is his second implementation.  It offers true
     Lisp--smoothly integrated into the editor--for writing extensions
     & provides an interface to the X Window System.  It runs on Unix,
     MS-DOS, & Windows NT or 95.  In addition to its powerful native
     command set, Emacs can emulate the editors vi & EDT (Digital's VMS
     editor).  Emacs has many other features which make it a full
     computing support environment.  Source for the `GNU Emacs Manual' &
     a reference card comes with the software.  Sources for the `GNU
     Emacs Lisp Reference Manual', & `Programming in Emacs Lisp: An
     Introduction' are distributed in separate packages.  *Note

   * Emacs 19   (SrcCD)   [FSFman(s), FSFrc]

     Emacs 19 works with character-only terminals & with the X Window
     System (with or without an X toolkit).  New Emacs 19 features
     include: multiple X windows ("frames" to Emacs), with a separate X
     window for the minibuffer or a minibuffer attached to each X
     window; use of the X toolkit; interfacing with the X resource
     manager; property lists associated with regions of text in a
     buffer; multiple fonts & colors defined by those properties;
     simplified/improved processing of function keys, mouse movement &
     clicks; X selection processing, including clipboard selections;
     hooks to be run if the point or mouse moves outside a certain
     range; menu bars & popup menus defined by keymaps; scrollbars;
     before- & after-change hooks; a source-level debugger for Emacs
     Lisp programs; floating point numbers; improved buffer allocation,
     including returning storage to the system when a buffer is killed;
     many updated libraries; Autoconf-based configuration; support for
     version control systems (CVS, RCS, & SCCS); & European character

     Recent features include the ability to open frames on more than
     one X display from a single Emacs job, operation under MS-DOS, MS
     Windows, and Windows NT, displaying multiple views of an outline
     at the same time, Lisp-level timers for real time and idle time,
     version control support for CVS and for multiple branches, text
     properties for formatting text, commands to edit text properties
     and save them in files, and GNU-standard long-named command line
     options.  Also see *Note Forthcoming GNUs::.

     Emacs 19.32 works on: Acorn RISC (RISCiX); Alliant FX/2800 (BSD);
     Alpha (OSF/1 or GNU/Linux); Apollo (DomainOS); Bull DPX/2 2nn &
     3nn (SysV.3) & sps7 (SysV.2); Clipper; Convex (BSD); Cubix QBx
     (SysV); Data General Aviion (DGUX); DEC MIPS (Ultrix 4.2, OSF/1,
     not VMS); Elxsi 6400 (SysV); Gould Power Node & NP1 (4.2 & 4.3BSD);
     Harris Night Hawk 1200, 3000, 4000 & 5000 (cxux); Harris Night
     Hawk Power PC (powerunix); Honeywell XPS100 (SysV); HP 9000 series
     200, 300, 700, 800 (but not 500) (4.3BSD; HP-UX 7, 8, 9; NextStep);
     Intel i386/i486/Pentium (GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, 386BSD, AIX,
     BSDI/386, FreeBSD, Esix, ISC, MS-DOS, NetBSD, SCO3.2v4, Solaris,
     SysV, Xenix, WindowsNT, Windows95); IBM RS/6000 (AIX 3.2) & RT/PC
     (AIX, BSD); Motorola Delta 147 & 187 (SysV.3, SysV.4, m88kbcs);
     National Semiconductor 32K (Genix); NeXT (BSD, Mach 2 w/ NeXTStep
     3.0); Paragon (OSF/1); Prime EXL (SysV); Pyramid (BSD); Sequent
     Symmetry (BSD, ptx); Siemens RM400 & RM600 (SysV); SGI Iris 4D
     (Irix 4.x & 5.x); Sony News/RISC (NewsOS); Stardent i860 (SysV);
     Sun 3 & 4, SPARC 1, 1+, 2, 10, Classic (SunOS 4.0, 4.1, Solaris
     2.0-2.3); Tadpole 68k (SysV); Tektronix XD88 (SysV.3) & 4300
     (BSD); & Titan P2 & P3 (SysV).

   * Emacs 18   (SrcCD)   [FSFrc]

     Emacs 18 is several years old.  We no longer maintain it, but still
     distribute it for those using platforms which Emacs 19 does not
     support: Alliant FX/80, Altos 3068, Amdahl (UTS), AT&T (3Bs & 7300
     PC), CCI 5/32 & 6/32, Celerity, Digital (VAX VMS), Dual, Encore
     (APC, DPC, & XPC), HLH Orion (original & 1/05), ISI (Optimum V,
     80386), Masscomp, NCR Tower 32 (SVR2 & SVR3), Nixdorf Targon 31,
     Nu (TI & LMI), pfa50, Plexus, Prime EXL, Stride (system rel. 2),
     Tahoe, Tandem Integrity S2, Tektronix 16000, Triton 88, Ustation
     E30 (SS5E), Whitechapel (MG1), & Wicat.

   * `es'   (SrcCD)

     `es' is an extensible shell (based on `rc') with first-class
     functions, lexical scope, exceptions, and rich return values (i.e.,
     functions can return values other than just numbers).  `es''s
     extensibility comes from the ability to modify and extend the
     shell's built-in services, such as path searching and redirection.
     Like `rc', it is great for both interactive use and scripting,
     particularly since its quoting rules are much less baroque than
     the C and Bourne shells.

   * `enscript'   (SrcCD)

     `enscript' is an upwardly-compatible replacement for the Adobe
     `enscript' program.  It formats ASCII files (outputting in
     Postscript) and stores generated output to a file or sends it
     directly to the printer.

   * Exim   (SrcCD)

     Exim is a new, somewhat experimental mail transfer agent, patterned
     after some of the lessons learned during the development of Smail.
     Exim can handle relatively high volume mail systems, caching of
     mail delivery, header rewriting, multiple local domains from one
     mail system, and control over which hosts/nets may use it as a

   * `f2c'   (SrcCD)

     `f2c' converts Fortran-77 source into C or C++, which can be
     compiled with GCC or G++.  Get bug fixes by FTP from site
     `netlib.bell-labs.com' or by email from
     `netlib@netlib.bell-labs.com'.  For a summary, see the file
     `/netlib/f2c/readme.Z'.  Also see the Fortran items later in this
     article, and in *Note Forthcoming GNUs::.

   * `ffcall'   (SrcCD)

     `ffcall' is a C library for implementing foreign function calls in
     embedded interpreters by Bill Triggs and Bruno Haible.  It allows C
     functions with arbitrary argument lists and return types to be
     called or emulated (callbacks).

   * Fileutils   (SrcCD)

     The Fileutils are: `chgrp', `chmod', `chown', `cp', `dd', `df',
     `dir', `dircolors', `du', `install', `ln', `ls', `mkdir', `mkfifo',
     `mknod', `mv', `rm', `rmdir', `sync', `touch', & `vdir'.

   * Findutils   (SrcCD)

     `find' is frequently used both interactively and in shell scripts
     to find files which match certain criteria and perform arbitrary
     operations on them.  Also included are `locate', which scans a
     database for file names that match a pattern, and `xargs', which
     applies a command to a list of files.

   * Finger   (SrcCD)

     GNU Finger has more features than other finger programs.  For
     sites with many hosts, a single host may be designated as the
     finger "server" host and other hosts at that site configured as
     finger "clients".  The server host collects information about who
     is logged in on the clients.  To finger a user at a GNU Finger
     site, a query to any of its client hosts gets useful information.
     GNU Finger supports many customization features, including user
     output filters and site-programmable output for special target

   * `flex'   (BinCD, SrcCD)   [FSFman, FSFrc]

     `flex' is a replacement for the `lex' scanner generator.  `flex'
     was written by Vern Paxson of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and
     generates far more efficient scanners than `lex' does.  Sources
     for the `Flex Manual' and reference card are included (*note

   * Fortran (`g77')   *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.*   (SrcCD)

     GNU Fortran (`g77'), developed by Craig Burley, is available for
     public beta testing on the Internet.  For now, `g77' produces code
     that is mostly object-compatible with `f2c' & uses the same
     run-time library (`libf2c').

   * Fontutils   (SrcCD)

     The Fontutils convert between font formats, create fonts for use
     with Ghostscript or TeX (starting with a scanned type image &
     converting the bitmaps to outlines), etc.  It includes: `bpltobzr',
     `bzrto', `charspace', `fontconvert', `gsrenderfont', `imageto',
     `imgrotate', `limn', & `xbfe'.

   * GAWK   (SrcCD)   [FSFman]

     GAWK is upwardly compatible with the latest POSIX specification of
     `awk'.  It also provides several useful extensions not found in
     other `awk' implementations.  Texinfo source for the `The GNU Awk
     User's Guide' comes with the software (*note Documentation::.).

   * `gcal'   (SrcCD)

     `gcal' is a program for printing calendars.  It displays different
     styled calendar sheets, eternal holiday lists, and fixed date
     warning lists.

   * GCC   *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.*   (BinCD, SrcCD)   [FSFman]

     Version 2 of the GNU C Compiler supports the languages C, C++, and
     Objective-C; the source file name suffix or a compiler option
     selects the language.  Objective-C support was donated by NeXT.
     The runtime support needed to run Objective-C programs is now
     distributed with GCC (this does not include any Objective-C
     classes aside from `object', but see "GNUstep" in *Note
     Forthcoming GNUs::).  As much as possible, G++ is kept compatible
     with the evolving draft ANSI standard, but not with `cfront'
     (AT&T's compiler), which has been diverging from ANSI.

     GCC is a fairly portable optimizing compiler which performs
     automatic register allocation, common sub-expression elimination
     (CSE) (including a certain amount of CSE between basic blocks -
     though not all the supported machine descriptions provide for
     scheduling or delay slots), invariant code motion from loops,
     induction variable optimizations, constant propagation, copy
     propagation, delayed popping of function call arguments, tail
     recursion elimination, integration of inline functions & frame
     pointer elimination, instruction scheduling, loop unrolling,
     filling of delay slots, leaf function optimization, optimized
     multiplication by constants, the ability to assign attributes to
     instructions, & many local optimizations automatically deduced
     from the machine description.

     GCC can open-code most arithmetic on 64-bit values (type `long long
     int').  It supports extended floating point (type `long double') on
     the 68k; other machines will follow.  GCC supports full ANSI C,
     traditional C, & GNU C extensions (including: nested functions
     support, nonlocal gotos, & taking the address of a label).

     GCC can generate a.out, COFF, ELF, & OSF-Rose files when used with
     a suitable assembler.  It can produce debugging information in
     these formats: BSD stabs, COFF, ECOFF, ECOFF with stabs, & DWARF.

     GCC generates code for many CPUs, including the a29k, Alpha, ARM,
     AT&T, DSP1610, Clipper, Convex cN, Elxsi, Fujitsu Gmicro, i370,
     i860, i960, MIL-STD-1750a, MIPS, ns32k, PDP-11, Pyramid, ROMP,
     RS/6000, SH, SPUR, Tahoe, VAX, & we32k.

     Position-independent code is generated for the Clipper, Hitachi
     H8/300, HP-PA (1.0 & 1.1), i386/i486/Pentium, m68k, m88k, SPARC, &

     Operating systems supported include: GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, ACIS,
     AIX, AOS, BSD, Clix, Concentrix, Ctix, DG/UX, Dynix, FreeBSD,
     Genix, HP-UX, Irix, ISC, Luna, LynxOS, Minix, NetBSD, NewsOS,
     NeXTStep, OS/2, OSF, OSF-Rose, RISCOS, SCO, Solaris 2, SunOS 4,
     System/370, SysV, Ultrix, Unos, VMS, & Windows/NT.

     Using the configuration scheme for GCC, building a cross-compiler
     is as easy as building a native compiler.

     Version 1 of GCC, G++, & libg++ are no longer maintained.

     Texinfo source for the `Using and Porting GNU CC' manual is
     included with GCC (*note Documentation::.).

   * GDB   (BinCD, SrcCD)   [FSFman, FSFrc]

     GDB, the GNU DeBugger, is a source-level debugger for C, C++, and

     GDB can debug both C and C++ programs, and will work with
     executables produced by many different compilers; however, C++
     debugging will have some limitations if you do not use GCC.

     GDB has a command line user interface, and Emacs has GDB mode as an
     interface.  Two X interfaces (not distributed or maintained by the
     FSF) are: `gdbtk' (FTP it from `ftp.cygnus.com' in directory
     `/pub/gdb'); and `xxgdb' (FTP it from `ftp.x.org' in directory

     Executable files and symbol tables are read via the BFD library,
     which allows a single copy of GDB to debug programs with multiple
     object file formats (e.g., a.out, COFF, ELF).  Other features
     include a rich command language, remote debugging over serial
     lines or TCP/IP, and watchpoints (breakpoints triggered when the
     value of an expression changes).

     GDB uses a standard remote interface to a simulator library which
     (so far) has simulators for the ARM, Hitachi H8/300, Hitachi
     H8/500, Hitachi Super-H, PowerPC, WDC 65816, & Zilog Z8001/2.

     GDB can perform cross-debugging.  To say that GDB "targets" a
     platform means it can perform native or cross-debugging for it.
     To say that GDB can "host" a given platform means that it can be
     built on it, but cannot necessarily debug native programs.

     GDB can:

        * "target" & "host": Amiga 3000 (Amix, NetBSD), DEC Alpha
          (OSF/1), DECstation 3100 & 5000 (Ultrix), HP 9000/300 (BSD,
          HP-UX), HP 9000/700 (HP-UX 9, 10), i386 (GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux,
          BSD, FreeBSD, LynxOS, NetBSD, SCO, Windows NT), IBM RS/6000
          (AIX 3.x, AIX 4.x, LynxOS), Motorola Delta m88k (System V,
          CX/UX), PC532 (NetBSD), Motorola m68k MVME-167 (LynxOS), NCR
          3000 (SVR4), PowerPC (AIX 4.x, MacOS, Windows NT), SGI (Irix
          V3, V4, V5), SONY News (NewsOS 3.x), SPARC (LynxOS, NetBSD,
          Solaris 2.x, & SunOS 4.1 ) Sun-3 (SunOS 4.1), & Ultracomputer
          (a29k running Sym1).

        * "target", but not "host": AMD 29000 (COFF & a.out), ARM (RDP),
          Hitachi H8/300, Hitachi SH (CMON, SH3, E7000), HP PA Pro
          (Winbond, Oki), i386 (a.out, COFF, OS/9000), i960 (MON960,
          Nindy, VxWorks), m68k/m68332 (a.out, COFF, CPU32BUG, EST,
          ROM68K, VxWorks), MIPS (ELF, IDT ecoff, PMON, VxWorks),
          PowerPC (PPCBug), Matra Sparclet, Fujitsu SPARClite (a.out,
          COFF), WDC 65816, & Z8000.

        * "host", but not "target": IBM RT/PC (AIX), HP/Apollo 68k
          (BSD), & m68k Apple Macintosh (MacOS).

     Sources for the manual, `Debugging with GDB', and a reference card
     are included (*note Documentation::.).

   * `gdbm'   (SrcCD)

     `gdbm' is the GNU replacement for the traditional `dbm' and `ndbm'
     libraries.  It implements a database using quick lookup by
     hashing.  `gdbm' does not ordinarily make sparse files (unlike its
     Unix and BSD counterparts).

   * `gettext'    *Also *note Help the GNU Translation Project::.*  

     The GNU `gettext' tool set has everything maintainers need to
     internationalize a package's user messages.  Once a package has
     been internationalized, `gettext''s many tools help translators
     localize messages to their native language and automate handling
     the translation files.

   * Generic NQS   (SrcCD)

     Generic NQS is a network queuing system for spreading batch jobs
     across a network of machines.  It is designed to be simple to
     install on a heterogeneous network of machines, and has
     optimizations for running on the high end, symmetric
     multiprocessing servers that are currently on the market.  It
     inter-operates with other NQS systems, including Cray's NQE.

   * `geomview'   (SrcCD)

     `geomview' is an interactive geometry viewing program.  It allows
     multiple independently controllable objects and cameras.
     `geomview' provides interactive control for motion, appearances
     (including lighting, shading, and materials), picking on an
     object, edge or vertex level, and snapshots in SGI image file or
     Renderman RIB format.  Adding or deleting objects is provided
     through direct mouse manipulation, control panels, and keyboard
     shortcuts.  External programs can drive desired aspects of the
     viewer (such as continually loading changing geometry or
     controlling the motion of certain objects) while allowing
     interactive control of everything else.

   * Ghostscript   *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.*   (SrcCD)

     Ghostscript is an interpreter for the Postscript and PDF graphics

     The current version of GNU Ghostscript is 3.33.  This version
     includes nearly a full Postscript Level 2 interpreter and also a
     PDF 1.0 interpreter.  Significant new features include: support
     for anti-aliased characters; the ability to scan a directory and
     register all the fonts in it; support for Type 0 (Japanese /
     Chinese / Korean) fonts; and the ability to compile all the
     external initialization files into the executable.  This version
     can also run as a 32-bit MS Windows application.

     Thanks to the generosity of URW++ (Hamburg, Germany), the
     low-quality bitmap-derived fonts distributed with older versions
     have been replaced with commercial-quality, hinted outline fonts.
     *Note GNUs Flashes::.

     Ghostscript executes commands in the Postscript language by writing
     directly to a printer, drawing on an X window, or writing to files
     for printing later or manipulating with other graphics programs.

     Ghostscript includes a C-callable graphics library (for client
     programs that do not want to deal with the Postscript language).
     It also supports i386/i486/Pentiums running DOS with EGA, VGA or
     SuperVGA graphics (but please do *not* ask the FSF staff any
     questions about this; we do not use DOS).

   * Ghostview   (SrcCD)

     Tim Theisen, `ghostview@cs.wisc.edu', created Ghostview, a
     previewer for multi-page files with an X Window interface.
     Ghostview & Ghostscript work together; Ghostview creates a viewing
     window & Ghostscript draws in it.

   * GIT   (SrcCD)

     The GNU Interactive Tools package includes: an extensible file
     system browser, an ASCII/hex file viewer, a process viewer/killer,
     & other related utilities & shell scripts.  It can be used to
     increase the speed & efficiency of many daily tasks, such as
     copying & moving files & directories, invoking editors,
     compressing/uncompressing files, creating & expanding archives,
     compiling programs, sending mail, etc.  It looks nice, has colors
     (if the standard ANSI color sequences are supported), & is

   * `gmp'   (SrcCD)

     GNU `mp' is a library for arithmetic on arbitrary precision
     integers, rational numbers, and floating-point numbers.  It has a
     rich set of functions with a regular interface.

     A major new release, version 2.0, is now out.  Compared to previous
     versions, it is much faster, & contains lots of new functions.
     The main new feature is support for arbitrary precision
     floating-point numbers.

   * Gnans    (SrcCD)

     Gnans is a program (and language) for the numerical study of
     deterministic and stochastic dynamical systems.  The dynamical
     systems may evolve in continuous or discrete time.  Gnans has
     graphical & command line interfaces.

   * GNAT: The GNU Ada Translator   (SrcCD)

     A front end for much of Ada 95 (GNAT: The GNU Ada Translator) is
     available via anonymous FTP from `cs.nyu.edu' in `/pub/gnat'.  SGI
     and Digital have chosen GNU Ada as the Ada compiler for certain
     systems.  News about GNAT is posted to the USENET newsgroup

   * GNATS   (SrcCD)

     GNATS (GNats: A Tracking System, not to be confused with GNAT, The
     GNU Ada Translator) is a bug-tracking system.  It is based upon
     the paradigm of a central site or organization which receives
     problem reports and negotiates their resolution by electronic
     mail.  Although it has been used primarily as a software
     bug-tracking system so far, it is sufficiently generalized that it
     could be used for handling system administration issues, project
     management, or any number of other applications.

   * GNUMATH (`gnussl')   (SrcCD)

     GNUMATH is a library (`gnussl') designed to simplify scientific
     programming.  Its focus is on problems that can be solved by a
     straight-forward application of numerical, linear algebra.  It
     also handles plotting.  GNUMATH is in beta release; it is expected
     to grow more versatile and offer a wider scope in time.

   * `gnuplot'   (SrcCD)

     `gnuplot' is an interactive program for plotting mathematical
     expressions and data.  It plots both curves (2 dimensions) &
     surfaces (3 dimensions).  It was neither written nor named for the
     GNU Project; the name is a coincidence.  Various GNU programs use

   * `gnuserv'   (SrcCD)

     `gnuserv' is an enhanced version of Emacs' `emacsclient' program.
     It lets the user direct a running Emacs to edit files or evaluate
     arbitrary Emacs Lisp constructs from another process.

   * GnuGo   (SrcCD)

     GnuGo plays the game of Go (Wei-Chi); version 1.2 was released
     with minor changes for portability,  but it is not yet very

   * `gperf'   (SrcCD)

     `gperf' generates perfect hash tables.  The C version is in
     package cperf.  The C++ version is in libg++.  Both produce hash
     functions in either C or C++.

   * Graphics   (SrcCD)

     GNU Graphics produces x-y plots from ASCII or binary data.  It
     outputs in Postscript, Tektronix 4010 compatible, and Unix
     device-independent "plot" formats.  It has a previewer for the X
     Window System.  Features include a `spline' interpolation program;
     examples of shell scripts using `graph' and `plot'; a statistics
     toolkit; and output in TekniCAD TDA and ln03 file formats.  Email
     bugs or queries to Rich Murphey, `Rich@lamprey.utmb.edu'.

   * grep   (SrcCD)

     This package has GNU `grep', `egrep', and `fgrep', which find
     lines that match entered patterns.  They are much faster than the
     traditional Unix versions.

   * Groff   (SrcCD)

     Groff is a document formatting system based on a
     device-independent version of `troff', & includes: `eqn', `nroff',
     `pic', `refer', `tbl', `troff'; the `man', `ms', & `mm' macros; &
     drivers for Postscript, TeX `dvi' format, the LaserJet 4 series of
     printers, and typewriter-like devices.  Groff's `mm' macro package
     is almost compatible with the DWB `mm' macros with several
     extensions.  Also included is a modified version of the Berkeley
     `me' macros and an enhanced version of the X11 `xditview'
     previewer.  Written in C++, these programs can be compiled with
     GNU C++ Version 2.7.2 or later.

     Groff users are encouraged to contribute enhancements.  Most needed
     are complete Texinfo documentation, a `grap' emulation (a `pic'
     preprocessor for typesetting graphs), a page-makeup postprocessor
     similar to `pm' (see `Computing Systems', Vol. 2, No. 2; ask
     `office@usenix.org' how to get a copy), and an ASCII output class
     for `pic' to integrate `pic' with Texinfo.  Questions and bug
     reports from users who have read the documentation provided with
     Groff can be sent to `bug-groff@prep.ai.mit.edu'.

   * `gzip'   (SrcCD)

     `gzip' can expand LZW-compressed files but uses another, unpatented
     algorithm for compression which generally produces better results.
     It also expands files compressed with System V's `pack' program.

   * `hello'   (SrcCD)

     The GNU `hello' program produces a familiar, friendly greeting.  It
     allows non-programmers to use a classic computer science tool
     which would otherwise be unavailable to them.  Because it is
     protected by the GNU General Public License, users are free to
     share and change it.  `hello' is also a good example of a program
     that meets the GNU coding standards.  Like any truly useful
     program, `hello' contains a built-in mail reader.

   * `hp2xx'   (SrcCD)

     GNU `hp2xx' reads HP-GL files, decomposes all drawing commands into
     elementary vectors, and converts them into a variety of vector and
     raster output formats.  It is also an HP-GL previewer.  Currently
     supported vector formats include encapsulated Postscript, Uniplex
     RGIP, Metafont, various special TeX-related formats, and
     simplified HP-GL (line drawing only) for imports.  Raster formats
     supported include IMG, PBM, PCX, & HP-PCL (including Deskjet &
     DJ5xxC support).  Previewers work under X11 (Unix), OS/2 (PM &
     full screen), & MS-DOS (SVGA, VGA, & HGC).

   * HylaFAX   (SrcCD)

     HylaFAX (once named FlexFAX) is a facsimile system for Unix
     systems.  It supports sending, receiving, & polled retrieval of
     facsimile, as well as transparent shared data use of the modem.

     Details are available on the World Wide Web at:

   * Hyperbole   (SrcCD)

     Hyperbole, written by Bob Weiner in Emacs Lisp, is an open,
     efficient, programmable information management & hypertext system,
     intended for everyday work on any platform supported by Emacs.

   * ID Utils   (SrcCD)

     ID Utils is a package of simple, fast, high-capacity,
     language-independent identifier database tools.  Actually, the term
     "identifier" is too limiting - ID Utils stores tokens, be they
     program identifiers of any form, literal numbers, or words of
     human-readable text.  Database queries can be issued from the
     command-line, or from within Emacs, serving as an augmented tags

   * `indent'   (SrcCD)

     GNU `indent' formats C source code into the GNU indentation style.
     It also has options to output BSD, K&R, or your own special
     style.  GNU `indent' is more robust & provides more functionality
     than other such programs, including handling C++ comments.  It
     runs on a number of systems, including DOS & VMS.

     The next version will also format C++ source code.

   * Inetutils   (SrcCD)

     Inetutils is an interim distribution of common networking utilities
     and servers.

     This release is intended mainly to support the GNU Hurd, which is
     source compatible with BSD in many ways, and will probably only
     work on systems that are similarly compatible.

   * Ispell   (SrcCD)

     Ispell is an interactive spell checker that suggests "near misses"
     to replace unrecognized words.  System & user-maintained
     dictionaries for multiple languages can be used.  Standalone &
     Emacs interfaces are available.

   * JACAL   *Not available from the FSF except by FTP*

     JACAL is a symbolic mathematics system for the manipulation and
     simplification of algebraic equations and expressions.  It is
     written in Scheme using the SLIB portable Scheme Library.  JACAL
     comes with SCM, an IEEE P1178 & R4RS compliant Scheme
     implementation written in C.  SCM runs on Amiga, Atari-ST, MS-DOS,
     OS/2, NOS/VE, Unicos, VMS, Unix, & similar systems.  New in JACAL
     is multivariate factoring from Michael Thomas
     `(mjt@octavia.anu.edu.au)'.  See JACAL's documentation at

     The FSF is not distributing JACAL on any physical media.  You can
     FTP it or get it from the Web site listed above.

   * Karma   (SrcCD)

     Karma is a signal and image processing library that provides
     interprocess communications, authentication, graphics display, and
     user interface to and manipulation of the Karma network data
     structure. Several foreign data formats are also supported.  Karma
     comes packaged with a number of standard tools, including a
     general-purpose image/movie display tool and a volume rendering

   * `less'   (SrcCD)

     `less' is a display paginator similar to `more' and `pg', but with
     various features (such as the ability to scroll backwards) that
     most pagers lack.

   * Lynx   (SrcCD)

     Lynx is a text-based World Wide Web browser for people running
     under "dumb" character-only terminals.  For more information about
     Lynx, consult the URL `http://www.ukans.edu/'.

   * `m4'   (SrcCD)

     GNU `m4' is an implementation of the traditional Unix macro
     processor.  It is mostly SVR4 compatible, although it has some
     extensions (e.g., handling more than 9 positional parameters to
     macros).  `m4' also has built-in functions for including files,
     running shell commands, doing arithmetic, etc.

   * `make'   *See *Note Forthcoming GNUs::* (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman]

     GNU `make' supports POSIX 1003.2 and has all but a few obscure
     features of the BSD and System V versions of `make', and runs on
     MS-DOS, AmigaDOS, VMS, & Windows NT or 95, as well as all
     Unix-compatible systems.  GNU extensions include long options,
     parallel compilation, flexible implicit pattern rules, conditional
     execution, & powerful text manipulation functions.  Source for the
     `Make Manual' comes with the program (*note Documentation::.).

   * MandelSpawn   (SrcCD)

     A parallel Mandelbrot generation program for the X Window System.

   * Maxima   (SrcCD)

     Maxima is a Common Lisp implementation of MIT's Macsyma system for
     computer based algebra.

   * Midnight Commander (`mc')   (SrcCD)

     The Midnight Commander is a user friendly & colorful Unix file
     manager & shell, useful to novice & guru alike.  It has a built-in
     virtual file system that manipulates files inside tar files or
     files on remote machines using the FTP protocol.  This mechanism
     is extendable with external Unix programs.

   * Miscellaneous Files Distribution   (SrcCD)

     The GNU Miscellaneous Files Distribution includes non-crucial
     files which have come to be common on various systems over the
     years, including word lists, airport codes, ZIP codes and more.

   * `mkisofs'   (SrcCD)

     `mkisofs' is a pre-mastering program to generate an ISO 9660 file
     system.  It takes a snapshot of a directory tree, and makes a
     binary image which corresponds to an ISO 9660 file system when
     written to a block device.

     It can also generate the System Use Sharing Protocol records of
     the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (used to further describe the
     files in an ISO 9660 file system to a Unix host; it provides
     information such as longer filenames, uid/gid, permissions, and
     device nodes).

     The `mkisofs' program is frequently used with `cdwrite'.
     `cdwrite' works by taking the image that `mkisofs' generates and
     driving a cdwriter to actually burn the disk.  `cdwrite' works
     under Linux, and supports popular cdwriters.  Older versions of
     `cdwrite' were included with older versions of `mkisofs'; check
     `sunsite.unc.edu' & get
     `/pub/Linux/utils/disk-management/cdwrite-2.0.tar.gz' for the
     latest version.

   * `mtools'   (SrcCD)

     `mtools' is a set of public domain programs to allow Unix systems
     to read, write, and manipulate files on an MS-DOS file system
     (usually a diskette).

   * MULE   (SrcCD)

     MULE is a MULtilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs.  MULE text
     buffers can contain a mix of characters from many languages
     including: Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Thai, modern
     European languages (including Greek & Russian), Arabic, & Hebrew.
     MULE also provides input methods for all of them.  MULE is being
     merged into GNU Emacs.  *Note GNU & Other Free Software in
     Japan::, for more information about MULE.

   * `ncurses'   (SrcCD)

     `ncurses' is an implementation of the Unix `curses' library for
     developing screen-based programs that are terminal independent.

   * NetHack   (SrcCD)

     NetHack is a Rogue-like adventure game supporting character & X

   * NIH Class Library   (SrcCD)

     The NIH Class Library (once known as "OOPS", Object-Oriented
     Program Support) is a portable collection of C++ classes (similar
     to those in Smalltalk-80) written in C++ by Keith Gorlen of the
     National Institutes of Health (NIH).

   * `nvi'   (SrcCD)

     `nvi' is a freely redistributable implementation of the `vi'/`ex'
     Unix editor.  It has almost all the functionality of the original
     `vi'/`ex', except "open" mode & the `lisp' option.  Enhancements
     include multiple buffers, command-line editing & path completion,
     integrated Perl5 & Tcl scripting languages, Cscope support & tag
     stacks, 8-bit data support, infinite file/line lengths, infinite
     undo, message catalogs, incremental search, and extended regular
     expressions.  It uses Autoconf for configuration and runs on any
     Unix-like system.

   * Oaklisp    (SrcCD)

     Oaklisp is a fast, portable, object-oriented Scheme with first
     class types.

   * Objective-C Library *See "GNUstep" in *Note Forthcoming GNUs::*

     Our Objective-C Class Library (`gstep-base.tar.gz',
     `libgnustep-base') has general-purpose, non-graphical Objective-C
     objects written by Andrew McCallum & other volunteers.  It includes
     collection classes for maintaining groups of objects, I/O streams,
     coders for formatting objects & C types to streams, ports for
     network packet transmission, distributed objects (remote object
     messaging), string classes, invocations, notifications, event
     loops, timers, exceptions, pseudo-random number generators, & time
     handling facilities.  It has the base classes for the GNUstep
     project; over 80 of them have already been written.  Send queries
     & bugs to `mccallum@gnu.ai.mit.edu'.

   * OBST   (SrcCD)

     OBST is a persistent object management system with bindings to C++.
     OBST supports incremental loading of methods.  Its graphical tools
     require the X Window System.  It features a hands-on tutorial
     including sample programs.  It compiles with G++, and should
     install easily on most Unix platforms.

   * Octave   (SrcCD)

     Octave is a high-level language similar to MATLAB, primarily
     intended for numerical computations.  It has a convenient command
     line interface for solving linear & nonlinear problems numerically.

     Octave does arithmetic for real and complex scalars and matrices,
     solves sets of nonlinear algebraic equations, integrates systems
     of ordinary differential & differential-algebraic equations, and
     integrates functions over finite & infinite intervals.
     Two- & three-dimensional plotting is available using `gnuplot'.

     Send queries & bugs to: `bug-octave@bevo.che.wisc.edu'.

     Texinfo source is included for a 220+ page Octave manual, not yet
     published by the FSF.

   * Oleo     (SrcCD)

     Oleo is a spreadsheet program (better for you than the more
     expensive spreadsheets).  It supports the X Window System and
     character-based terminals, and can output Embedded Postscript
     renditions of spreadsheets.  Keybindings should be familiar to
     Emacs users and are configurable.  Oleo supports multiple
     variable-width fonts when used under the X Window System or
     outputting to Postscript devices.

   * `p2c'   (SrcCD)

     `p2c' is Dave Gillespie's Pascal-to-C translator.  It inputs many
     dialects (HP, ISO, Turbo, VAX, etc.)  & generates readable,
     maintainable, portable C.

   * `patch'   (SrcCD)

     `patch' is our version of Larry Wall's program to take `diff''s
     output and apply those differences to an original file to generate
     the modified version.

   * PCL   (SrcCD)

     PCL is a free implementation of a large subset of CLOS, the Common
     Lisp Object System.  It runs under both GCL and CLISP, mentioned

   * `perl'   (SrcCD)

     Larry Wall's `perl' combines the features & capabilities of C,
     `sed', `awk', & `sh', and provides interfaces to the Unix system
     calls & many C library routines.

   * `pine'   *Also *note Some Bad News about Pine::.*   (SrcCD)

     `pine' is a friendly menu-driven electronic mail manager and user
     interface .

   * `ptx'    *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.*   (SrcCD)

     GNU `ptx' is our version of the traditional permuted index
     generator.  It handles multiple input files at once, has TeX
     compatible output, & outputs readable "KWIC" (KeyWords In Context)
     indexes without using `nroff'.

     It does not yet handle input files that do not fit in memory all at

   * `rc'   (SrcCD)

     `rc' is a shell that features a C-like syntax (much more so than
     `csh') and far cleaner quoting rules than the C or Bourne shells.
     It's intended to be used interactively, but is also great for
     writing scripts.  It inspired the shell `es'.

   * RCS   (SrcCD)

     RCS, the Revision Control System, is used for version control &
     management of software projects.  Used with GNU `diff', RCS can
     handle binary files (8-bit data, executables, object files, etc).
     RCS now conforms to GNU configuration standards & to POSIX
     1003.1b-1993.  Also see the CVS item above.

   * `recode'    *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.*   (SrcCD)

     GNU `recode' converts files between character sets and usages.
     When exact transliterations are not possible, it may delete the
     offending characters or fall back on approximations.  This program
     recognizes or outputs nearly 150 different character sets and is
     able to transliterate files between almost any pair.  Most RFC
     1345 character sets are supported.

   * `regex'   (SrcCD)

     The GNU regular expression library supports POSIX.2, except for
     internationalization features.  It is included in many GNU
     programs which do regular expression matching & is available
     separately.  An alternate regular expression package, `rx', is
     faster than `regex' in most cases & will replace `regex' over time.

   * `rx'   (SrcCD)

     Tom Lord has written `rx', a new regular expression library which
     is faster than the older GNU `regex' library.  It is now being
     distributed with `sed' and `tar'.  `rx' will be used in the next
     releases of `m4' and `ptx'.

   * SAOimage   (SrcCD)

     SAOimage is an X-based astronomical image viewer.  It reads data
     images and displays them with a pseudocolor colormap.  There is
     full interactive control of the colormap, reading, and writing of
     colormaps, etc.

   * Scheme   (SrcCD)

     Scheme is a simplified, lexically-scoped dialect of Lisp.  It was
     designed at MIT and other universities to teach students the art
     of programming and to research new parallel programming constructs
     and compilation techniques.

     We now distribute MIT Scheme 7.3, which conforms to the "Revised^4
     Report On the Algorithmic Language Scheme" (MIT AI Lab Memo 848b),
     for which TeX source is included.  It is written partly in C, but
     is presently hard to bootstrap.  Binaries to bootstrap it exist
     for: HP9000 series 300, 400, 700, & 800 (running HP-UX 9.0), NeXT
     (NeXT OS 2 or 3.2), DEC Alpha (OSF/1), IBM RS/6000 (AIX), Sun-3 or
     Sun-4 (SunOS 4.1), DECstation 3100/5100 (Ultrix 4.0), Sony
     NeWS-3250 (NEWS OS 5.01), & Intel i386 (MS-DOS, Windows 3.1 or NT).
     If your system isn't on this list & you don't enjoy the bootstrap
     challenge, see the "JACAL" item earlier in this article.

   * `screen'   (SrcCD)

     `screen' is a terminal multiplexer that runs several separate
     "screens" (ttys) on a single character-based terminal.  Each
     virtual terminal emulates a DEC VT100 plus several ISO 2022 and
     ISO 6429 (ECMA 48, ANSI X3.64) functions, including color.
     Arbitrary keyboard input translation is also supported.  `screen'
     sessions can be detached and resumed later on a different terminal
     type.  Output in detached sessions is saved for later viewing.

   * `sed'   (SrcCD)

     `sed' is a stream-oriented version of `ed'.  It comes with the
     `rx' library.

   * Sharutils   (SrcCD)

     `shar' makes so-called shell archives out of many files, preparing
     them for transmission by electronic mail services; `unshar' helps
     unpack these shell archives after reception.  `uuencode' and
     `uudecode' are POSIX compliant implementations of a pair of
     programs which transform files into a format that can be safely
     transmitted across a 7-bit ASCII link.

   * Shellutils   (SrcCD)

     The Shellutils are: `basename', `chroot', `date', `dirname',
     `echo', `env', `expr', `factor', `false', `groups', `hostname',
     `id', `logname', `nice', `nohup', `pathchk', `printenv', `printf',
     `pwd', `seq', `sleep', `stty', `su', `tee', `test', `true', `tty',
     `uname', `uptime', `users', `who', `whoami', & `yes'.

   * Shogi   (SrcCD)

     Shogi is a Japanese game similar to Chess; a major difference is
     that captured pieces can be returned into play.

     GNU Shogi is a variant of GNU Chess; it implements the same
     features & similar heuristics.  As a new feature, sequences of
     partial board patterns can be introduced to help the program play
     toward specific opening patterns.  It has both character and X
     display interfaces.

     It is primarily supported by Matthias Mutz on behalf of the FSF.

   * SIPP    (SrcCD)

     SIPP is a library for photorealisticly rendering 3D scenes.
     Scenes can be illuminated by an arbitrary number of light sources;
     they are built up of object hierarchies, with arbitrarily many
     subobjects and subsurfaces.  Surfaces can be rendered with either
     Phong, Gouraud, or flat shading.  The library supports
     programmable shaders and texture mapping.

   * Smail   (SrcCD)

     Smail is a mail transport system, designed as a compatible drop-in
     replacement for `sendmail'.  It uses a much simpler configuration
     format than `sendmail' and is designed to be setup with minimal

   * Smalltalk   *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.*   (SrcCD)

     GNU Smalltalk is an interpreted object-oriented programming
     language system written in highly portable C.  It has been ported
     to DOS, many Unix, & other OSes.  Features include a binary image
     save capability, the ability to call user-written C code with
     parameters, an Emacs editing mode, a version of the X protocol
     invocable from Smalltalk, optional byte-code compilation and/or
     execution tracing, & automatically loaded per-user initialization
     files.  It implements all of the classes & protocol in the book
     "Smalltalk-80: The Language", except for the graphic user
     interface (GUI) related classes.

   * SNePS    (SrcCD)

     SNePS is the Semantic Network Processing System.  It is an
     implementation of a fully intensional theory of propositional
     knowledge representation and reasoning.  SNePS runs under CLISP or

   * Spinner   (SrcCD)

     Spinner is a modularized, object-oriented, non-forking World Wide
     Web server with high performance and throughput.

   * Superopt   (SrcCD)

     Superopt is a function sequence generator that uses an exhaustive
     generate-and-test approach to find the shortest instruction
     sequence for a given function.  You provide a function as input, a
     CPU to generate code for, and how many instructions you want.  Its
     use in GCC is described in the `ACM SIGPLAN PLDI'92 Proceedings'.
     It supports: SPARC, m68k, m68020, m88k, IBM POWER and PowerPC, AMD
     29k, Intel x86 & 960, Pyramid, DEC Alpha, Hitachi SH, & HP-PA.

   * `tar'   (SrcCD)

     GNU `tar' includes multi-volume support, the ability to archive
     sparse files, compression/decompression, remote archives, and
     special features that allow `tar' to be used for incremental and
     full backups.  GNU `tar' uses an early draft of the POSIX 1003.1
     `ustar' format which is different from the final version.  This
     will be corrected in the future.

   * Termcap Library   (SrcCD)   [FSFman]

     The GNU Termcap library is a drop-in replacement for
     `libtermcap.a' on any system.  It does not place an arbitrary
     limit on the size of Termcap entries, unlike most other Termcap
     libraries.  Included is source for the `Termcap Manual' in Texinfo
     format (*note Documentation::.).

   * Termutils   (SrcCD)

     The Termutils package contains programs for controlling terminals.
     `tput' is a portable way for shell scripts to use special terminal
     capabilities.  `tabs' is a program to set hardware terminal tab

   * TeX   (SrcCD)

     TeX is a document formatting system that handles complicated
     typesetting, including mathematics.  It is GNU's standard text

     The University of Washington maintains & supports a tape
     distribution of TeX for Unix systems.  The core material is Karl
     Berry's `web2c' TeX package.  Sources are available via anonymous
     FTP; retrieval instructions are in `/pub/tex/unixtex.ftp' on
     `ftp.cs.umb.edu'.  If you receive any installation support from
     the University of Washington, consider sending them a donation.

     To order a full distribution written in `tar' on either a 1/4inch
     4-track QIC-24 cartridge or a 4mm DAT cartridge, send $210.00 to:

          Pierre A. MacKay
          Department of Classics
          DH-10, Denny Hall 218
          University of Washington
          Seattle, WA   98195
          Electronic-Mail: `mackay@cs.washington.edu'
          Telephone: +1-206-543-2268

     Please make checks payable to: `University of Washington'.  Do not
     specify any other payee.  That causes accounting problems.  Checks
     must be in U.S. dollars, drawn on a U.S. bank.  Only prepaid
     orders can be handled.  Overseas sites: please add to the base
     cost $20.00 to ship via air parcel post or $30.00 to ship via
     courier.  Please check with the above for current prices & formats.

   * Texinfo   (SrcCD)   [FSFman]

     Texinfo is a set of utilities (`makeinfo', `info', `texi2dvi',
     `texindex', `tex2patch', & `fixfonts') which generate both printed
     manuals & online hypertext documentation (called "Info"), & can
     read online Info documents.  Version 3 has both Emacs Lisp &
     standalone programs written in C or shell script.  Texinfo mode
     for Emacs enables easy editing & updating of Texinfo files.  Source
     for the `Texinfo Manual' is included (*note Documentation::.).

   * Textutils   (SrcCD)

     The Textutils programs manipulate textual data.  They include:
     `cat', `cksum', `comm', `csplit', `cut', `expand', `fmt', `fold',
     `head', `join', `md5sum', `nl', `od', `paste', `pr', `sort',
     `split', `sum', `tac', `tail', `tr', `unexpand', `uniq', and `wc'.

   * TIFF library   (SrcCD)

     The TIFF library, `libtiff', is a library for manipulating Tagged
     Image File Format files, a commonly used bitmap graphics format.

   * Tile Forth   (SrcCD)

     Tile Forth is a 32-bit implementation of the Forth-83 standard
     written in C, allowing it to be easily ported to new systems &
     extended with any C-function (graphics, windowing, etc).

     Many documented Forth libraries are available, e.g. top-down
     parsing, multi-threads, & object-oriented programming.

   * `time'   (SrcCD)

     `time' reports (usually from a shell) the user, system, & real time
     used by a process.  On some systems it also reports memory usage,
     page faults, etc.

   * `ucblogo'   (SrcCD)

     `ucblogo' implements the classic teaching language, Logo.

   * UUCP   (SrcCD)

     GNU's UUCP system (written by Ian Lance Taylor) supports the `f',
     `g' (all window & packet sizes), `v', `G', `t', `e', Zmodem, & two
     new bidirectional (`i' & `j') protocols.  With a BSD sockets
     library, it can make TCP connections.  With TLI libraries, it can
     make TLI connections.  Source is included for a manual (not yet
     published by the FSF).

   * W3   (SrcCD)

     W3 (written by William Perry in Emacs Lisp) is an extensible,
     advanced World Wide Web browser that runs as part of Emacs.  It
     understands many protocols & file formats: FTP, gopher, HTML,
     SMTP, Telnet, WAIS, etc.

   * `wdiff'   (SrcCD)

     `wdiff' is a front-end to GNU `diff'.  It compares two files,
     finding the words deleted or added to the first to make the
     second.  It has many output formats and works well with terminals
     and pagers.  `wdiff' is very useful when two texts differ only by
     a few words and paragraphs have been refilled.

   * WN   (SrcCD)

     WN is a World Wide Web server designed to be secure and flexible.
     It offers many different capabilities in pre-parsing files before
     passing them to the client, and has a very different design from
     Apache and the NCSA server.

   * X11   (SrcCD)

     We distribute Version 11, Release 6.1 of the X Window System with
     the latest patches and bug fixes.  X11 includes all of the core
     software, documentation, contributed clients, contributed
     libraries & toolkits, the Andrew User Interface System, games, etc.

     While supplies last, we will distribute X11R5 on the *Note
     November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM::.

   * `xboard', `xshogi'   (SrcCD)

     `xboard' is an X Window interface to GNU Chess.  `xshogi' is an X
     Window interface to GNU Shogi.  They use the R4 Athena widgets and
     Xt Intrinsics to provide an interactive referee for managing a
     game between a user & a computer opponent, or between two
     computers.  You can also use `xboard' without GNU Chess to play
     through games in files or to play through games manually (force
     mode); in this case, moves aren't validated.

   * `xgrabsc'   (SrcCD)

     `xgrabsc' is a screen capture program similar to `xwd' but with a
     graphical user interface, more ways of selecting the part of the
     screen to capture, & different types of output: Postscript, color
     Postscript, xwd, bitmap, pixmap, & puzzle.

   * `Ygl'   (SrcCD)

     `Ygl' emulates a subset of SGI's GL (Graphics Language) library
     under X11 on most platforms with an ANSI C compiler (GCC is OK).
     It has most two-dimensional graphics routines, the queue device &
     query routines, double buffering, RGB mode with dithering, FORTRAN
     bindings, etc.


Program/Package Cross Reference

   Here is a list of the package each GNU program or library is in.
You can FTP the current list in the file `/pub/gnu/ProgramIndex' from a
GNU FTP host (listed in *Note How to Get GNU Software::).

        * 4dview geomview
        * a2p perl
        * a2x xopt
        * ac bsd44
        * accton bsd44
        * ackpfd phttpd
        * acl bsd44
        * acm acm
        * acms acm
        * addbbox geomview
        * addftinfo Groff
        * adventure bsd44
        * afm2tfm TeX
        * aid ID Utils
        * amd bsd44
        * ansitape bsd44
        * AnswerGarden xopt
        * apply bsd44
        * appres xreq
        * apropos bsd44
        * ar Binutils
        * arithmetic bsd44
        * arp bsd44
        * atc bsd44
        * authwn WN
        * autoconf Autoconf
        * autoheader Autoconf
        * automake Automake
        * autoreconf Autoconf
        * autoscan Autoconf
        * autoupdate Autoconf
        * auto_box xopt
        * auto_box xreq
        * b2m Emacs
        * backgammon bsd44
        * bad144 bsd44
        * badsect bsd44
        * banner bsd44
        * basename Shellutils
        * bash BASH
        * battlestar bsd44
        * bc bc
        * bcd bsd44
        * bdes bsd44
        * bdftops Ghostscript
        * beach_ball xopt
        * beach_ball xreq
        * beach_ball2 xopt
        * bibtex TeX
        * biff bsd44
        * bison Bison
        * bitmap xreq
        * boggle bsd44
        * bpltobzr Fontutils
        * bugfiler bsd44
        * buildhash Ispell
        * bzrto Fontutils
        * c++ GCC
        * c++filt Binutils
        * c2ph perl
        * ca100 xopt
        * caesar bsd44
        * cal bsd44
        * calendar bsd44
        * canfield bsd44
        * cat Textutils
        * cbars wdiff
        * cc GCC
        * cc1 GCC
        * cc1obj GCC
        * cc1plus GCC
        * cccp GCC
        * cdwrite mkisofs
        * cfengine cfengine
        * cgi Spinner
        * charspace Fontutils
        * checknr bsd44
        * chess bsd44
        * chflags bsd44
        * chgrp Fileutils
        * ching bsd44
        * chmod Fileutils
        * chown Fileutils
        * chpass bsd44
        * chroot bsd44
        * ci RCS
        * cksum Textutils
        * cktyps g77
        * clisp CLISP
        * clri bsd44
        * cmail xboard
        * cmmf TeX
        * cmodext xopt
        * cmp Diffutils
        * co RCS
        * col bsd44
        * colcrt bsd44
        * colrm bsd44
        * column bsd44
        * comm Textutils
        * compress bsd44
        * comsat bsd44
        * connectd bsd44
        * cp Fileutils
        * cpicker xopt
        * cpio cpio
        * cpp GCC
        * cppstdin perl
        * cribbage bsd44
        * crock xopt
        * csh bsd44
        * csplit Textutils
        * ctags Emacs
        * ctwm xopt
        * cu UUCP
        * cut Textutils
        * cvs CVS
        * cvscheck CVS
        * cvtmail Emacs
        * cxterm xopt
        * d Fileutils
        * date Shellutils
        * dc bc
        * dd Fileutils
        * ddd DDD
        * defid ID Utils
        * delatex TeX
        * demangle Binutils
        * descend CVS
        * detex TeX
        * df Fileutils
        * dhtppd phttpd
        * diff Diffutils
        * diff3 Diffutils
        * diffpp enscript
        * digest-doc Emacs
        * dipress bsd44
        * dir Fileutils
        * dircolors Fileutils
        * dirname Shellutils
        * dish xopt
        * disklabel bsd44
        * diskpart bsd44
        * dld dld
        * dm bsd44
        * dmesg bsd44
        * doschk doschk
        * dox xopt
        * du Fileutils
        * dump bsd44
        * dump mkisofs
        * dumpfs bsd44
        * dvi2tty TeX
        * dvicopy TeX
        * dvips TeX
        * dvitype TeX
        * ecc ecc
        * echo Shellutils
        * ed ed
        * edit-pr GNATS
        * editres xreq
        * edquota bsd44
        * eeprom bsd44
        * egrep grep
        * eid ID Utils
        * emacs Emacs
        * emacsclient Emacs
        * emacsserver Emacs
        * emacstool Emacs
        * emu xopt
        * enscript enscript
        * env Shellutils
        * eqn Groff
        * error bsd44
        * es es
        * esdebug es
        * etags Emacs
        * ex nvi
        * example geomview
        * exicyclog Exim
        * exigrep Exim
        * exim Exim
        * eximon Exim
        * eximon Exim
        * eximstats Exim
        * exinext Exim
        * exiwhat Exim
        * expand Textutils
        * expect DejaGnu
        * expr Shellutils
        * exterm xopt
        * f2c f2c
        * factor bsd44
        * fakemail Emacs
        * false Shellutils
        * fastboot bsd44
        * fax2ps HylaFAX
        * faxalter HylaFAX
        * faxanswer HylaFAX
        * faxcover HylaFAX
        * faxd HylaFAX
        * faxd.recv HylaFAX
        * faxmail HylaFAX
        * faxquit HylaFAX
        * faxrcvd HylaFAX
        * faxrm HylaFAX
        * faxstat HylaFAX
        * fc f2c
        * fdraw xopt
        * ffe g77
        * fgrep grep
        * fid ID Utils
        * file bsd44
        * find Findutils
        * find2perl perl
        * finger Finger
        * fingerd Finger
        * fish bsd44
        * fixfonts Texinfo
        * fixinc.svr4 GCC
        * fixincludes GCC
        * flex flex
        * flex++ flex
        * flythrough geomview
        * fmt bsd44
        * fnid ID Utils
        * fold Textutils
        * font2c Ghostscript
        * fontconvert Fontutils
        * forth Tile Forth
        * forthicon Tile Forth
        * forthtool Tile Forth
        * fortune bsd44
        * fpr bsd44
        * freq Ispell
        * freqtbl Ispell
        * from bsd44
        * fsck bsd44
        * fsplit bsd44
        * fstat bsd44
        * ftp bsd44
        * ftp Inetutils
        * ftpd bsd44
        * ftpd Inetutils
        * g++ GCC
        * gas Binutils
        * gawk GAWK
        * gcal gcal
        * gcc GCC
        * gcore bsd44
        * gdb GDB
        * genclass libg++
        * geomstuff geomview
        * gettext gettext
        * getty bsd44
        * gftodvi TeX
        * gftopk TeX
        * gftype TeX
        * ghostview Ghostview
        * gid ID Utils
        * ginsu geomview
        * git GIT
        * gitaction GIT
        * gitcmp GIT
        * gitkeys GIT
        * gitmatch GIT
        * gitmount GIT
        * gitps GIT
        * gitredir GIT
        * gitrgrep GIT
        * gitview GIT
        * gitwipe GIT
        * gn GN
        * gnans Gnans
        * gnanslator Gnans
        * gnats GNATS
        * gnuchess Chess
        * gnuchessc Chess
        * gnuchessn Chess
        * gnuchessr Chess
        * gnuchessx Chess
        * gnuclient gnuserv
        * gnudoit gnuserv
        * gnupdisp Shogi
        * gnuplot gnuplot
        * gnuplot_x11 gnuplot
        * gnuserv gnuserv
        * gnushogi Shogi
        * gnushogir Shogi
        * gnushogix Shogi
        * go GnuGo
        * gpc xopt
        * gpc xreq
        * gperf cperf
        * gperf libg++
        * gprof Binutils
        * graffiti geomview
        * graph Graphics
        * grep grep
        * grodvi Groff
        * groff Groff
        * grops Groff
        * grotty Groff
        * groups Shellutils
        * gs Ghostscript
        * gsbj Ghostscript
        * gsdj Ghostscript
        * gslj Ghostscript
        * gslp Ghostscript
        * gsnd Ghostscript
        * gsrenderfont Fontutils
        * gunzip gzip
        * gvclock geomview
        * gwm xopt
        * gzexe gzip
        * gzip gzip
        * h2ph perl
        * h2pl perl
        * hack bsd44
        * hangman bsd44
        * head Textutils
        * hello hello
        * hexdump bsd44
        * hexl Emacs
        * hinge geomview
        * hostname Shellutils
        * hp2xx hp2xx
        * hterm xopt
        * htmlencode phttpd
        * httpd apache
        * httpdecode phttpd
        * i18nOlwmV2 xopt
        * i2mif xopt
        * ico xopt
        * ico xreq
        * id Shellutils
        * ident RCS
        * ifconfig bsd44
        * ifnames Autoconf
        * ImageMagick xopt
        * imageto Fontutils
        * iman xopt
        * imgrotate Fontutils
        * indent indent
        * indxbib Groff
        * inetd bsd44
        * inetd Inetutils
        * info Texinfo
        * inimf TeX
        * init bsd44
        * initex TeX
        * inn bsd44
        * install Fileutils
        * iostat bsd44
        * isodiag mkisofs
        * isodump mkisofs
        * ispell Ispell
        * ixterm xopt
        * ixx xopt
        * join Textutils
        * jot bsd44
        * jove bsd44
        * kdestroy bsd44
        * kdump bsd44
        * kermit bsd44
        * kgames xopt
        * kgmon bsd44
        * kill bsd44
        * kinit bsd44
        * kinput2 xopt
        * klist bsd44
        * kpasswdd bsd44
        * ksrvtgt bsd44
        * kterm xopt
        * ktrace bsd44
        * lam bsd44
        * larn bsd44
        * lasergnu gnuplot
        * last bsd44
        * lastcomm bsd44
        * latex TeX
        * lclock xopt
        * ld Binutils
        * leave bsd44
        * less less
        * lesskey less
        * libavcall.a ffcall
        * libbfd.a Binutils
        * libbfd.a GDB
        * libbzr.a Fontutils
        * libc.a C Library
        * libcompat.a bsd44
        * libcurses.a bsd44
        * libcurses.a ncurses
        * libdcurses.a ncurses
        * libedit.a bsd44
        * libF77.a f2c
        * libF77.a g77
        * libg++.a libg++
        * libgdbm.a gdbm
        * libgf.a Fontutils
        * libgmp.a gmp
        * libgnanslib.a Gnans
        * libgnussl.a gnussl
        * libI77.a f2c
        * libI77.a g77
        * libkvm.a bsd44
        * libm.a bsd44
        * libncurses.a ncurses
        * libnihcl.a NIHCL
        * libnihclmi.a NIHCL
        * libnihclvec.a NIHCL
        * libnls.a xreq
        * libobjects.a libobjects
        * liboctave.a Octave
        * liboldX.a xreq
        * libpbm.a Fontutils
        * libPEXt.a xopt
        * libpk.a Fontutils
        * libresolv.a bsd44
        * librpc.a bsd44
        * libsipp.a SIPP
        * libtcl.a DejaGnu
        * libtelnet.a bsd44
        * libterm.a bsd44
        * libtermcap.a Termcap
        * libtfm.a Fontutils
        * libtiff.a tiff
        * libutil.a bsd44
        * libvacall.a ffcall
        * libWc.a xopt
        * libwidgets.a Fontutils
        * libX.a xreq
        * libXau.a xreq
        * libXaw.a xreq
        * libXcp.a xopt
        * libXcu.a xopt
        * libXdmcp.a xreq
        * libXmp.a xopt
        * libXmu.a xreq
        * libXO.a xopt
        * libXop.a xopt
        * libXp.a xopt
        * libXpex.a xopt
        * libXt.a xopt
        * libXt.a xreq
        * libXwchar.a xopt
        * liby.a bsd44
        * libYgl.a Ygl
        * lid ID Utils
        * limn Fontutils
        * listres xopt
        * listres xreq
        * lkbib Groff
        * ln Fileutils
        * locate Findutils
        * lock bsd44
        * logcvt-ip2n phttpd
        * logger bsd44
        * login bsd44
        * logname Shellutils
        * logo ucblogo
        * lookbib Groff
        * lorder bsd44
        * lpr bsd44
        * ls Fileutils
        * lynx lynx
        * m4 m4
        * mail bsd44
        * mail-files Sharutils
        * mailq smail
        * mailshar Sharutils
        * make make
        * make-docfile Emacs
        * make-path Emacs
        * makeindex TeX
        * makeinfo Texinfo
        * MakeTeXPK TeX
        * man bsd44
        * man-macros Groff
        * maniview geomview
        * mattrib mtools
        * maze xopt
        * maze xreq
        * mazewar xopt
        * mc mc
        * mcd mtools
        * mcopy mtools
        * mcserv mc
        * md5sum Textutils
        * mdel mtools
        * mdir mtools
        * me-macros Groff
        * medit2gv geomview
        * merge RCS
        * mesg bsd44
        * mf TeX
        * mformat mtools
        * mft TeX
        * mgdiff xopt
        * mh bsd44
        * mille bsd44
        * mkafmmap enscript
        * mkcache GN
        * mkdep bsd44
        * mkdir Fileutils
        * mkfifo Fileutils
        * mkid ID Utils
        * mkisofs mkisofs
        * mklocale bsd44
        * mkmanifest mtools
        * mkmf bsd44
        * mkmodules CVS
        * mknod Fileutils
        * mkstr bsd44
        * mlabel mtools
        * mm-macros Groff
        * mmd mtools
        * monop bsd44
        * more bsd44
        * morse bsd44
        * mount bsd44
        * mountd bsd44
        * movemail Emacs
        * mprof bsd44
        * mrd mtools
        * mread mtools
        * mren mtools
        * ms-macros Groff
        * msgcmp gettext
        * msgfmt gettext
        * msgmerge gettext
        * msgs bsd44
        * msgunfmt gettext
        * mst Smalltalk
        * mt cpio
        * mterm xopt
        * mtree bsd44
        * mtype mtools
        * mule MULE
        * muncher xopt
        * mv Fileutils
        * mvdir Fileutils
        * mwrite mtools
        * NDview geomview
        * nethack NetHack
        * netstat bsd44
        * newfs bsd44
        * nfsd bsd44
        * nfsiod bsd44
        * nfsstat bsd44
        * nice Shellutils
        * nl Textutils
        * nlmconv Binutils
        * nm Binutils
        * nohup Shellutils
        * nose geomview
        * notify HylaFAX
        * nroff Groff
        * number bsd44
        * objc GCC
        * objcopy Binutils
        * objdump Binutils
        * objective-c GCC
        * obst-boot OBST
        * obst-CC OBST
        * obst-cct OBST
        * obst-cgc OBST
        * obst-cmp OBST
        * obst-cnt OBST
        * obst-cpcnt OBST
        * obst-csz OBST
        * obst-dir OBST
        * obst-dmp OBST
        * obst-gen OBST
        * obst-gsh OBST
        * obst-init OBST
        * obst-scp OBST
        * obst-sil OBST
        * obst-stf OBST
        * oclock xreq
        * octave Octave
        * od Textutils
        * oleo Oleo
        * ora-examples xopt
        * p2c p2c
        * pagesize bsd44
        * palette xopt
        * pascal bsd44
        * passwd bsd44
        * paste Textutils
        * patch patch
        * patgen TeX
        * pathalias bsd44
        * pathchk Shellutils
        * pathto smail
        * pax bsd44
        * pbmplus xopt
        * perl perl
        * pfbtops Groff
        * phantasia bsd44
        * phttpd phttpd
        * pic Groff
        * pico pine
        * pig bsd44
        * pine pine
        * ping bsd44
        * pixedit xopt
        * pixmap xopt
        * pktogf TeX
        * pktype TeX
        * plaid xopt
        * plot2fig Graphics
        * plot2plot Graphics
        * plot2ps Graphics
        * plot2tek Graphics
        * pltotf TeX
        * pollrcvd HylaFAX
        * pom bsd44
        * pooltype TeX
        * portmap bsd44
        * ppt bsd44
        * pr Textutils
        * pr-addr GNATS
        * pr-edit GNATS
        * primes bsd44
        * printenv Shellutils
        * printf Shellutils
        * protoize GCC
        * proxygarb Spinner
        * ps bsd44
        * ps2ascii Ghostscript
        * ps2epsi Ghostscript
        * ps2fax HylaFAX
        * psbb Groff
        * pstat bsd44
        * psycho xopt
        * ptester phttpd
        * ptx ptx
        * pubdic+ xopt
        * puzzle xopt
        * puzzle xreq
        * pwd Shellutils
        * pyramid xopt
        * query-pr GNATS
        * quiz bsd44
        * quot bsd44
        * quota bsd44
        * quotacheck bsd44
        * quotaon bsd44
        * rain bsd44
        * random bsd44
        * ranlib Binutils
        * rbootd bsd44
        * rc rc
        * rcp bsd44
        * rcp Inetutils
        * rcs RCS
        * rcs-to-cvs CVS
        * rcs2log Emacs
        * rcsdiff RCS
        * rcsfreeze RCS
        * rcsmerge RCS
        * rdist bsd44
        * reboot bsd44
        * recode recode
        * recvstats HylaFAX
        * red ed
        * refer Groff
        * remsync Sharutils
        * renice bsd44
        * repquota bsd44
        * restore bsd44
        * rev bsd44
        * rexecd bsd44
        * rexecd Inetutils
        * rlog RCS
        * rlogin bsd44
        * rlogin Inetutils
        * rlogind bsd44
        * rlogind Inetutils
        * rm Fileutils
        * rmail bsd44
        * rmdir Fileutils
        * rmt cpio
        * rmt tar
        * robots bsd44
        * rogue bsd44
        * route bsd44
        * routed bsd44
        * rr xopt
        * rs bsd44
        * rsh bsd44
        * rsh Inetutils
        * rshd bsd44
        * rshd Inetutils
        * rsmtp smail
        * runq smail
        * runtest DejaGnu
        * runtest.exp DejaGnu
        * ruptime bsd44
        * rwho bsd44
        * rwhod bsd44
        * s2p perl
        * sail bsd44
        * saoimage SAOimage
        * savecore bsd44
        * sc bsd44
        * sccs bsd44
        * sccs2rcs CVS
        * scdisp xopt
        * screen screen
        * script bsd44
        * scsiformat bsd44
        * sctext xopt
        * sdiff Diffutils
        * sed sed
        * send-pr GNATS
        * sendfax HylaFAX
        * sendmail bsd44
        * sgi2fax HylaFAX
        * sgn GN
        * sh bsd44
        * shar Sharutils
        * shinbun xopt
        * shogi Shogi
        * showfont xopt
        * showmount bsd44
        * shutdown bsd44
        * size Binutils
        * sj3 xopt
        * sjxa xopt
        * slattach bsd44
        * sleep Shellutils
        * sliplogin bsd44
        * smail smail
        * smtpd smail
        * snake bsd44
        * snftobdf xopt
        * soelim Groff
        * sort Textutils
        * sos2obst OBST
        * spider xopt
        * split Textutils
        * startslip bsd44
        * stereo geomview
        * stf OBST
        * strings Binutils
        * strip Binutils
        * stty Shellutils
        * su Shellutils
        * sum Textutils
        * superopt Superopt
        * swapon bsd44
        * sweep geomview
        * sync bsd44
        * sysctl bsd44
        * syslog Inetutils
        * syslogd bsd44
        * syslogd Inetutils
        * systat bsd44
        * tabs Termutils
        * tac Textutils
        * tackdown geomview
        * tail Textutils
        * taintperl perl
        * talk bsd44
        * talk Inetutils
        * talkd bsd44
        * talkd Inetutils
        * tangle TeX
        * tar tar
        * tbl Groff
        * tcal gcal
        * tcl DejaGnu
        * tclsh DejaGnu
        * tcopy bsd44
        * tcp Emacs
        * tee Shellutils
        * tek2plot Graphics
        * telnet bsd44
        * telnet Inetutils
        * telnetd bsd44
        * telnetd Inetutils
        * test Shellutils
        * test-g++ DejaGnu
        * test-tool DejaGnu
        * tetris bsd44
        * tex TeX
        * tex3patch Texinfo
        * texi2dvi Texinfo
        * texindex Texinfo
        * texspell TeX
        * textfmt HylaFAX
        * tfmtodit Groff
        * tftopl TeX
        * tftp bsd44
        * tftp Inetutils
        * tftpd bsd44
        * tftpd Inetutils
        * tgrind TeX
        * time time
        * timed bsd44
        * timer Emacs
        * timex xopt
        * tip bsd44
        * tkpostage xopt
        * tn3270 bsd44
        * togeomview geomview
        * touch Fileutils
        * tput Termutils
        * tr Textutils
        * traceroute bsd44
        * transcript HylaFAX
        * transfig xopt
        * transformer geomview
        * trek bsd44
        * trigrp geomview
        * trn3 bsd44
        * troff Groff
        * trpt bsd44
        * trsp bsd44
        * true Shellutils
        * tset bsd44
        * tsort bsd44
        * tty Shellutils
        * ttygnans Gnans
        * tunefs bsd44
        * tupdate gettext
        * tvtwm xopt
        * twm xreq
        * ul bsd44
        * ulpc Spinner
        * umount bsd44
        * uname Shellutils
        * uncompress gzip
        * unexpand Textutils
        * unifdef bsd44
        * unify wdiff
        * uniq Textutils
        * unprotoize GCC
        * unshar Sharutils
        * unvis bsd44
        * update bsd44
        * updatedb Findutils
        * users Shellutils
        * uuchk UUCP
        * uucico UUCP
        * uuconv UUCP
        * uucp UUCP
        * uucpd bsd44
        * uucpd Inetutils
        * uudecode Sharutils
        * uudir UUCP
        * uuencode Sharutils
        * uulog UUCP
        * uuname UUCP
        * uupath smail
        * uupick UUCP
        * uurate UUCP
        * uusched UUCP
        * uustat UUCP
        * uuto UUCP
        * uux UUCP
        * uuxqt UUCP
        * v Fileutils
        * vacation bsd44
        * vandal xopt
        * vcdiff Emacs
        * vdir Fileutils
        * vftovp TeX
        * vgrind bsd44
        * vi nvi
        * viewres xopt
        * viewres xreq
        * vine xopt
        * vipw bsd44
        * virmf TeX
        * virtex TeX
        * vis bsd44
        * vmstat bsd44
        * vptovf TeX
        * w bsd44
        * waisgn GN
        * wakeup Emacs
        * wall bsd44
        * wargames bsd44
        * wc Textutils
        * wdiff wdiff
        * weave TeX
        * what bsd44
        * whatis bsd44
        * whereis bsd44
        * who Shellutils
        * whoami Shellutils
        * whois bsd44
        * window bsd44
        * winterp xopt
        * wish DejaGnu
        * wn WN
        * wndex WN
        * worm bsd44
        * worms bsd44
        * write bsd44
        * wump bsd44
        * x11perf xreq
        * x2p perl
        * xalarm xopt
        * xancur xopt
        * xargs Findutils
        * xauth xreq
        * xbfe Fontutils
        * xbiff xopt
        * xbiff xreq
        * xboard xboard
        * xboing xopt
        * xbuffy3 xopt
        * xcalc xopt
        * xcalc xreq
        * xcalendar xopt
        * xcdplayer xopt
        * xcell xopt
        * xclipboard xreq
        * xclock xreq
        * xcmdmenu xopt
        * xcms xopt
        * xcmsdb xreq
        * xcmstest xreq
        * xco xopt
        * xcolorize xopt
        * xcolors xopt
        * xconsole xreq
        * xcrtca xopt
        * xdaliclock xopt
        * xdiary xopt
        * xditview Groff
        * xditview xopt
        * xditview xreq
        * xdm xreq
        * xdpyinfo xreq
        * xdu xopt
        * xdvi TeX
        * xdvi xopt
        * xdvorak xopt
        * xearth xopt
        * xed xopt
        * xedit xopt
        * xedit xreq
        * xev xopt
        * xev xreq
        * xexit xopt
        * xeyes xopt
        * xeyes xreq
        * xfd xreq
        * xfed xopt
        * xfedor xopt
        * xfeoak xopt
        * xferstats HylaFAX
        * xfig xopt
        * xfontsel xopt
        * xfontsel xreq
        * xforecast xopt
        * xgas xopt
        * xgas xreq
        * xgc xopt
        * xgc xreq
        * xgettext gettext
        * xhearts xopt
        * xhelp xopt
        * xhost xreq
        * xinit xreq
        * xkeycaps xopt
        * xkill xreq
        * xlax xopt
        * xlayout xopt
        * xlbiff xopt
        * xless xopt
        * xload xopt
        * xload xreq
        * xlogin xopt
        * xlogo xreq
        * xlsatoms xreq
        * xlsclients xreq
        * xlsfonts xreq
        * xmag xreq
        * xmail xopt
        * xmailbox xopt
        * xmailwatcher xopt
        * xman xopt
        * xman xreq
        * xmandel xopt
        * xmessage xopt
        * xmeter xopt
        * xmh xreq
        * xmh-icons xopt
        * xmh.editor xopt
        * xmodmap xreq
        * xmon xopt
        * xmove xopt
        * xmphone xopt
        * xpd xopt
        * xphoon xopt
        * xpipeman xopt
        * xplot Graphics
        * xpostit xopt
        * xpr xopt
        * xpr xreq
        * xprompt xopt
        * xproof xopt
        * xprop xreq
        * xpserv xopt
        * xrdb xreq
        * xrefresh xreq
        * xrsh xopt
        * xrubik xopt
        * xrunclient xopt
        * xscope xopt
        * xscreensaver xopt
        * xsession xopt
        * xset xreq
        * xsetroot xreq
        * xshogi xshogi
        * xstdcmap xreq
        * xstr bsd44
        * xtalk xopt
        * xterm xreq
        * xterm_color xopt
        * xtetris xopt
        * xTeXcad.13 xopt
        * xtiff xopt
        * xtokid ID Utils
        * xtree xopt
        * xtv xopt
        * xwd xreq
        * xwininfo xreq
        * xwud xreq
        * yacc bsd44
        * yes Shellutils
        * youbin xopt
        * yow Emacs
        * zcat gzip
        * zcmp gzip
        * zdiff gzip
        * zforce gzip
        * zgrep gzip
        * zmore gzip
        * znew gzip
        * [ Shellutils



We offer these CD-ROMs:

   * Several editions of our *Note Source Code CD-ROMs::.

   * December 1995 *Note Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM::.

   * December 1994 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, see the *note Free
     Software Foundation Order Form::.

   * December 1993 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, see the *note Free
     Software Foundation Order Form::.

Our CD-ROMs are in ISO 9660 format and can be mounted as a read-only
file system on most computers.  If your driver supports it, you can
mount each CD with "Rock Ridge" extensions and it will look just like
an ordinary Unix file system, rather than one full of truncated and
otherwise mangled names that fit vanilla ISO 9660.

   You can build most of the software without copying the sources off
the CD.  You only need enough disk space for object files and
intermediate build targets.


Pricing of the GNU CD-ROMs

   If a business or organization is ultimately paying, the July 1996
Source CD set costs $240.  The set costs $60 if you, an individual, are
paying out of your own pocket.  The December 1995 Compiler Tools
Binaries CD-ROM costs $220 for a business or organization, and $55 for
an individual.


What Do the Different Prices Mean?

   The software on our disks is free; anyone can copy it and anyone can
run it.  What we charge for is the physical disk and the service of

   We charge two different prices depending on who is buying.  When a
company or other organization buys the July 1996 Source CD-ROMs, we
charge $240.  When an individual buys the same CD-ROMs, we charge just
$60.  This distinction is not a matter of who is allowed to use the
software.  In either case, once you have a copy, you can distribute as
many copies as you wish and there's no restriction on who can have or
run them.  The price distinction is entirely a matter of what kind of
entity pays for the CDs.

   You, the reader, are certainly an individual, not a company.  If you
are buying a disk "in person", then you are probably doing so as an
individual.  But if you expect to be reimbursed by your employer, then
the disk is really for the company; so please pay the company price and
get reimbursed for it.  We won't try to check up on you--we use the
honor system--so please cooperate.

   Buying CDs at the company price is very helpful for GNU; just
140 Source CDs at that price support an FSF programmer or tech writer
for a year.


Why Is There an Individual Price?

   In the past, our distribution tapes were ordered mainly by companies.
The CD at the price of $240 provides them with all of our software for a
much lower price than they would previously have paid for six different
tapes.  To lower the price more would cut into the FSF's funds very
badly and decrease the software development we can do.

   However, for individuals, $240 is too high a price; hardly anyone
could afford that.  So we decided to make CDs available to individuals
at the lower price of $60.


Is There a Maximum Price?

   Our stated prices are minimum prices.  Feel free to pay a higher
price if you wish to support GNU development more.  The sky's the
limit; we will accept as high a price as you can offer.  Or simply give
a donation (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to the Free Software
Foundation, a tax-exempt public charity.


December 1995 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM

   We have the third edition of our CD-ROM that has binaries and
complete sources for GNU compiler tools for some systems which lack a
compiler.  This enables the people who use these systems to compile GNU
and other free software without having to buy a proprietary compiler.
You can also use these GNU tools to compile your own C/C++/Objective-C
programs.  Older editions of this CD are available while supplies last
at a reduced price; see the *note Free Software Foundation Order

   We hope to have more systems on each update of this CD.  If you can
help build binaries for new systems (especially those that don't come
with a C compiler), or have one to suggest, please contact us at the
addresses on the top menu.

These packages:

        * DJGPP 1.12m4 from GCC 2.6.3
        * GCC/G++/Objective-C 2.7.1
        * GNU C Library 1.09
        * GDB 4.15.1
        * Binutils 2.6
        * Bison 1.24
        * Emacs 19.29 (MS-DOS only)
        * Flex 2.5.2
        * Make 3.74
        * libg++ 2.7.1

On these platforms:

        * `i386-msdos'
        * `hppa1.0-hp-hpux9'
        * `sparc-sun-solaris2'
        * `sparc-sun-sunos4.1'


MS-DOS/Windows Book with CD-ROM

   We are working on our first book on GNU Software for DOS/Windows,
but we do not know when it will be finished.  It will include a CD-ROM
with the sources & binaries for much of the GNU software.

   Because it just slows us down, please do NOT contact us about this
book until we announce it on our electronic mailing lists (to
subscribe, ask `info-gnu-request@prep.ai.mit.edu').



Source Code CD-ROMs

   We have several versions of our Source Code CD-ROMs available,

   * *Note July 1996 Source Code CD-ROMs::, the newest release, has
     programs, bug fixes, & improvements not on the other CDs.

   * *Note December 1995 Source Code CD-ROMs::.

   * June 1995 Source Code CD-ROM, see the *note Free Software
     Foundation Order Form::.

   * May 1994 Source Code CD-ROM, see the *note Free Software
     Foundation Order Form::.

   * *Note November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM::.

   * May 1993 Source Code CD-ROM, see the *note Free Software
     Foundation Order Form::.

   * October 1992 Source Code CD-ROM, see the *note Free Software
     Foundation Order Form::.

The older Source CDs are available while supplies last at a reduced
price (please note that the December 1994 Source CD is permanently out
of stock).  All the Source CDs have Texinfo source for the GNU manuals
listed in *Note Documentation::.

   MIT Scheme & much of X11 is *not* on the older Source CDs.

   There are no precompiled programs on these Source CDs.  You will
need a C compiler (programs which need some other interpreter or
compiler normally provide the C source for a bootstrapping program).
We ship C compiler binaries for some systems on the *Note Compiler
Tools Binaries CD-ROM::.


July 1996 Source Code CD-ROMs

   The 8th edition of our Source Code CD is out with two CD-ROM disks.
It has programs, bug fixes, & improvements not on the older Source CDs.
It has these packages, & some manuals that are not part of packages:

        * acm 4.7
        * apache 1.1
        * Autoconf 2.10
        * Automake 1.0
        * BASH 1.14.6
        * bc 1.03
        * Binutils 2.7
        * Bison 1.25
        * C Library 1.93
        * Calc 2.02d
        * cfengine 1.3.7
        * Chess 4.0.pl77
        * CLISP 1996.05.30
        * Common Lisp 2.2
        * cperf 2.1a
        * cpio 2.4.2
        * CVS 1.8.1
        * DejaGnu 1.3
        * Diffutils 2.7
        * dld 3.3
        * doschk 1.1
        * ed 0.2
        * Elib 1.0
        * elisp archive
        * Emacs 18.59
        * Emacs 19.31
        * Emacs 19.32
        * enscript 1.4.0
        * es 0.84
        * Exim 0.53
        * f2c 1996.07.23
        * ffcall 1.0
        * Fileutils 3.13
        * Findutils 4.1
        * Finger 1.37
        * flex 2.5.3
        * Fontutils 0.6
        * g77 0.5.18
        * GAWK 3.0.0
        * gcal 1.01
        * GCC/G++/Objective-C
        * GCC 2.7.3
        * GDB 4.16
        * gdbm 1.7.3
        * Generic NQS 3.50.0
        * geomview 1.5.0
        * gettext 0.10
        * Ghostscript 3.33
        * Ghostview 1.5
        * Ghostview for Windows 1.0
        * GIT 4.3.11
        * gmp 2.0.2
        * GN 2.24
        * Gnans 1.5.1
        * gnat 3.05
        * GNATS 3.2
        * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 1.03
        * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 2.4
        * GnuGo 1.2
        * gnuplot 3.5
        * gnuserv 2.1alpha
        * gnussl 0.2
        * Graphics 0.17
        * grep 2.0
        * Groff 1.10
        * gzip 1.2.4
        * hello 1.3
        * hp2xx 3.1.4
        * HylaFAX 4.0b018
        * ID Utils 3.1
        * indent 1.9.1
        * Inetutils 1.0
        * Ispell 3.1.20
        * karma 1.4
        * less 321
        * libg++ 2.7.2
        * libobjects 0.1.19
        * lynx 2.5
        * m4 1.4
        * make 3.75
        * MandelSpawn 0.07
        * maxima 5.2
        * mc 3.2.1
        * miscfiles 1.0
        * mkisofs 1.05GNU
        * mm 1.07
        * mtools 3.0
        * MULE 2.3
        * ncurses 1.9.9e
        * NetHack 3.2.1
        * NIHCL 3.1.4
        * nvi 1.71
        * Oaklisp 930720
        * OBST 3.4.3
        * Octave 1.1.1
        * Oleo 1.6
        * p2c 1.20
        * patch 2.1
        * perl 4.036
        * perl 5.003
        * phttpd
        * pine 3.91
        * Programming in Emacs Lisp an Introduction 1.04
        * ptx 0.4
        * rc 1.4
        * RCS 5.7
        * readline 2.0
        * regex 0.12
        * rx 1.0
        * SAOimage 1.18
        * screen 3.7.1
        * sed 2.05
        * Sharutils 4.2
        * Shellutils 1.12
        * Shogi 1.2p03
        * SIPP 3.1
        * smail 3.2
        * Smalltalk 1.1.1
        * Spinner 1.0b14
        * Superopt 2.5
        * tar 1.11.8
        * Termcap 1.3
        * Termutils 2.0
        * TeX 3.145
        * Texinfo 3.7
        * Textutils 1.19
        * tiff 3.4b035
        * Tile Forth 2.1
        * time 1.7
        * ucblogo 3.3
        * UUCP 1.06.1
        * W3 2.2.26
        * wdiff 0.5
        * WN 1.15.3
        * X11R6.1
        * xboard 3.4.pl1
        * xgrabsc 2.41
        * xshogi 1.2p03
        * Ygl 3.1


December 1995 Source Code CD-ROMs

   We still have copies of the 7th edition of our Source CD available.
This was the first two-disk edition of our Source Code CD.  It contains
these packages, & some manuals that are not part of packages:

        * acm 4.7
        * apache 0.8.8
        * Autoconf 2.7
        * BASH 1.14.5
        * bc 1.03
        * Binutils 2.5.2
        * Binutils 2.6
        * Bison 1.24
        * C Library 1.09
        * Calc 2.02c
        * cfengine 1.2.21
        * Chess 4.0.pl75
        * CLISP 1995.08.12
        * Common Lisp 2.2
        * cperf 2.1a
        * cpio 2.3
        * CVS 1.6
        * DDD 1.3b
        * DejaGnu 1.2.9
        * Diffutils 2.7
        * dld 3.2.3
        * doschk 1.1
        * ecc 1.2.1
        * ed 0.2
        * Elib 0.07
        * Elisp archive
        * Emacs 18.59
        * Emacs 19.28
        * Emacs 19.29
        * Emacs 19.30
        * es 0.84
        * f2c 1995.11.18
        * ffcall 1.0
        * Fileutils 3.12
        * Findutils 4.1
        * Finger 1.37
        * flex 2.5.2
        * Fontutils 0.6
        * g77 0.5.17
        * GAWK 2.15.6
        * GCC/G++/Objective C 2.7.1
        * GDB 4.15.1
        * gdbm 1.7.3
        * gettext 0.9a
        * Ghostscript 2.6.2
        * Ghostview 1.5
        * Ghostview for Windows 1.0
        * GIT 4.3.7
        * gmp 1.3.2
        * GN 2.23
        * Gnans 1.5
        * GNATS 3.2
        * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, Ed. 1.03 for Version 18.59
        * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, Ed. 2.4 for Version 19.29
        * GnuGo 1.2
        * gnuplot 3.5
        * gnuserv 2.1alpha
        * Graphics 0.17
        * grep 2.0
        * Groff 1.09
        * gzip 1.2.4
        * hello 1.3
        * hp2xx 3.1.4
        * HylaFAX v3.0pl0
        * Hyperbole 4.01
        * indent 1.9.1
        * Ispell 3.1.20
        * less 290
        * libg++ 2.7.1
        * libobjects 0.1.3
        * m4 1.4
        * make 3.74
        * mc 3.0
        * MIT Scheme 7.3
        * mkisofs 1.04GNU
        * mtools 2.0.7
        * MULE 2.3
        * ncurses 1.9.7a
        * NetHack 3.1.3
        * NIHCL 3.1.4
        * nvi 1.34
        * Oaklisp 93.07.23
        * OBST 3.4.3
        * Octave 1.1.1
        * Oleo 1.6
        * p2c 1.20
        * patch 2.1
        * perl 4.036
        * perl 5.001
        * phttpd 0.99.68
        * pine 3.91
        * Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction, Ed. 1.04
        * ptx 0.4
        * rc 1.4
        * RCS 5.7
        * recode 3.4
        * regex 0.12
        * rx 0.05
        * SAOimage 1.08
        * screen 3.7.1
        * sed 2.05
        * Sharutils 4.1
        * Shellutils 1.12
        * Shogi 1.2p03
        * SIPP 3.1
        * Smalltalk 1.1.1
        * SNePS 2.3.1
        * Spinner 1.0b11
        * Superopt 2.5
        * tar 1.11.8
        * Termcap 1.3
        * TeX 3.145
        * Texinfo 3.6
        * Textutils 1.13
        * Tile Forth 2.1
        * time 1.6
        * tput 1.0
        * ucblogo 3.3
        * UUCP 1.06.1
        * W3 2.2.25
        * wdiff 0.5
        * X11R6
        * xboard 3.3.pl3
        * xgrabsc 2.41
        * xshogi 1.2p03
        * Ygl 3.0.2


November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM

   We still have the 3rd edition of our Source CD, at a reduced price,
while supplies last.  It was the last Source Code CD to contain X11R5.
This CD has Edition 2.2 for version 19 of the `GNU Emacs Lisp Reference
Manual' & some additional software; not all FSF distributed software is
included (*note Source Code CD-ROMs::.).  It contains these packages:

        * acm 3.1
        * Autoconf 1.7
        * BASH 1.13.4
        * bc 1.02
        * Binutils 1.9
        * Binutils 2.3
        * Bison 1.22
        * C Library 1.06.7
        * Calc 2.02b
        * Chess 4.0p62
        * CLISP 93.11.08
        * cpio 2.3
        * CVS 1.3
        * dc 0.2
        * DejaGnu 1.0.1
        * Diffutils 2.6
        * dld 3.2.3
        * doschk 1.1
        * ecc 1.2.1
        * Elib 0.06
        * Emacs 18.59
        * Emacs 19.21
        * es 0.84
        * f2c 1993.04.28
        * Fileutils 3.9
        * find 3.8
        * Finger 1.37
        * flex 2.3.8
        * Fontutils 0.6
        * GAS 1.36.utah
        * GAS 1.38.1
        * GAS 2.2
        * GAWK 2.15.3
        * GCC/G++/Objective-C 2.5.4
        * GDB 4.11
        * gdbm 1.7.1
        * Ghostscript 2.6.1
        * Ghostview 1.5
        * Ghostview for Windows 1.0
        * gmp 1.3.2
        * GNATS 3.01
        * GnuGo 1.1
        * gnuplot 3.5
        * gperf 2.1a
        * Graphics 0.17
        * grep 2.0
        * Groff 1.08
        * gzip 1.2.4
        * hello 1.3
        * hp2xx 3.1.3a
        * indent 1.8
        * Ispell 4.0
        * less 177
        * libg++ 2.5.1
        * m4 1.1
        * make 3.69.1
        * MandelSpawn 0.06
        * mtools 2.0.7
        * MULE 1.0
        * NetFax 3.2.1
        * NetHack 3.1.3
        * NIHCL 3.0
        * Oleo 1.5
        * p2c 1.20
        * patch 2.1
        * PCL 93.03.18
        * perl 4.036
        * ptx 0.3
        * rc 1.4
        * RCS
        * recode 3.2.4
        * regex 0.12
        * screen 3.5.2
        * sed-1.18 2.03
        * shellutils 1.9.1
        * Shogi 1.1p02
        * Smalltalk 1.1.1
        * Superopt 2.3
        * tar 1.11.2
        * Termcap 1.2
        * TeX 3.1
        * Texinfo 3.1
        * tileforth 2.1
        * time 1.6
        * tput 1.0
        * UUCP 1.04
        * uuencode 1.0
        * wdiff 0.04
        * X11R5


CD-ROM Subscription Service

   Our subscription service enables you to stay current with the latest
GNU developments.  For a one-time cost equivalent to three Source
CD-ROMs (plus shipping in some cases), we will ship you four new
versions of the *Note Source Code CD-ROMs::.  The CD-ROMs are sent as
they are issued (currently twice a year, but we hope to make it more
frequent).  We do not yet know if we will be offering subscriptions to
the Compiler Tools Binaries CD or our DOS/Windows Book with CD-ROM when
it is available.

   A subscription is an easy way to keep up with the regular bug fixes
to the X Window System.  Each edition of the *Note Source Code
CD-ROMs::, has updated sources for the X Window System.

   Please note: In two cases, you must pay 4 times the normal shipping
required for a single order when you pay for each subscription.  If
you're in Alaska, Hawaii, or Puerto Rico you must add $20.00 for
shipping for each subscription.  If you're outside of the U.S., Canada,
and Puerto Rico, you must add $80.00 for each subscription.  See
"CD-ROMs" and "Tax and Shipping Costs" on the *note Free Software
Foundation Order Form::.

The Deluxe Distribution

   The Free Software Foundation has been asked repeatedly to create a
package that provides executables for all of our software.  Normally we
offer only sources.  The Deluxe Distribution provides binaries with the
source code and includes six T-shirts, all our CD-ROMs, printed
manuals, & reference cards.

   The FSF Deluxe Distribution contains the binaries and sources to
hundreds of different programs including Emacs, the GNU C/C++ Compiler,
the GNU Debugger, the complete X Window System, and all the GNU

   We will make a Deluxe Distribution for most machines/operating
systems.  We may be able to send someone to your office to do the
compilation, if we can't find a suitable machine close to us.  However,
we can only compile the programs that already support your chosen
machine/system - porting is a separate matter (to commission a port,
consult the GNU Service Directory; details in *Note Free Software
Support::).  Compiling all these programs takes time; a Deluxe
Distribution for an unusual machine will take longer to produce than
one for a common machine.  Please contact the FSF Office with any

   We supply the software on a write-once CD-ROM (in ISO 9660 format
with "Rock Ridge" extensions), or on one of these tapes in Unix `tar'
format: 1600 or 6250bpi 1/2in reel, Sun DC300XLP 1/4in cartridge -
QIC24, IBM RS/6000 1/4in c.t. - QIC 150, Exabyte 8mm c.t., or DAT 4mm
c.t.  If your computer cannot read any of these, please contact us to
see if we can handle your format.

   The manuals included are one each of the `Bison', `Calc', `GAWK',
`GNU C Compiler', `GNU C Library', `GDB', `Flex', `GNU Emacs Lisp
Reference', `Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction', `Make',
`Texinfo', & `Termcap' manuals; six copies of the `GNU Emacs' manual;
and ten reference cards each for Emacs, Bison, Calc, Flex, & GDB.

   Every Deluxe Distribution also has a copy of the latest editions of
our CD-ROMs that have sources of our software & compiler tool binaries
for some systems.  The CDs are in ISO 9660 format with Rock Ridge

   The price of the Deluxe Distribution is $5000 (shipping included).
These sales provide enormous financial assistance to help the FSF
develop more free software.  To order, please fill out the "Deluxe
Distribution" section on the *note Free Software Foundation Order
Form::.  and send it to:

        Free Software Foundation, Inc.
        59 Temple Place - Suite 330
        Boston, MA   02111-1307
        Telephone: +1-617-542-5942
        Fax (including Japan): +1-617-542-2652
        Electronic Mail: gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu
        World Wide Web: http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu


GNU Documentation

   GNU is dedicated to having quality, easy-to-use online & printed
documentation.  GNU manuals are intended to explain underlying
concepts, describe how to use all the features of each program, & give
examples of command use.  GNU manuals are distributed as Texinfo source
files, which yield both typeset hardcopy via the TeX document
formatting system and online hypertext display via the menu-driven Info
system.  Source for these manuals comes with our software; here are the
manuals that we publish as printed books.  See the *note Free Software
Foundation Order Form::., to order them.

   Most GNU manuals are bound as soft cover books with "lay-flat"
bindings.  This allows you to open them so they lie flat on a table
without creasing the binding.  They have an inner cloth spine and an
outer cardboard cover that will not break or crease as an ordinary
paperback will.  Currently, the `GDB', `Emacs', `Emacs Lisp
Reference', `Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction', `GNU Awk
User's Guide', `Make', `Bison', `Using and Porting GCC', & `Texinfo'
manuals have this binding.  The other GNU manuals also lie flat when
opened, using a GBC binding.  All our manuals are 7in by 9.25in except
the 8.5in by 11in `Calc' manual.

   The edition number of the manual and version number of the program
listed after each manual's name were current at the time this Bulletin
was published.

   `Debugging with GDB' (Edition 4.12 for Version 4.14) tells how to run
your program under GNU Debugger control, examine and alter data, modify
a program's flow of control, and use GDB through GNU Emacs.

   The `GNU Emacs Manual' (11th Edition for Version 19.33) describes
editing with GNU Emacs.  It explains advanced features, including
outline mode and regular expression search; how to use special
programming modes to write languages like C++ and TeX; how to use the
`tags' utility; how to compile and correct code; how to make your own
keybindings; and other elementary customizations.

   `Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction' (Edition 1.04) is for
people who are not necessarily interested in programming, but who do
want to customize or extend their computing environment.  If you read
it in Emacs under Info mode, you can run the sample programs directly.

   `The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual' (Edition 2.4 for Version 19.29)
and `The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Japanese Edition' (Japanese DRAFT
Revision 1.0, from English Edition 2.4 for Version 19.29) cover this
programming language in depth, including data types, control
structures, functions, macros, syntax tables, searching/matching, modes,
windows, keymaps, byte compilation, and the operating system interface.

   `The GNU Awk User's Guide' (Edition 1.0 for Version 3.0.0) tells how
to use GAWK.  It is written for those who have never used `awk' and
describes features of this powerful string and record manipulation

   `GNU Make' (Edition 0.50 for Version 3.75 Beta) describes GNU
`make', a program used to rebuild parts of other programs.  The manual
tells how to write "makefiles", which specify how a program is to be
compiled and how its files depend on each other.  Included are an
introductory chapter for novice users and a section about automatically
generated dependencies.

   The `Flex' manual (Edition 1.03 for Version 2.3.7) teaches you to
write a lexical scanner definition for the `flex' program to create a
C++ or C-coded scanner that recognizes the patterns defined.  You need
no prior knowledge of scanners.

   `The Bison Manual' (November 1995 Edition for Version 1.25) teaches
you how to write context-free grammars for the Bison program that
convert into C-coded parsers.  You need no prior knowledge of parser

   `Using and Porting GNU CC' (November 1995 Edition for Version 2.7.2)
tells how to run, install, and port the GNU C Compiler to new systems.
It lists new features and incompatibilities of GCC, but people not
familiar with C will still need a good reference on the C programming
language.  It also covers G++.

   The `Texinfo' manual (Edition 2.20 for Version 3) explains the markup
language that produces our online Info documentation & typeset
hardcopies.  It tells you how to make tables, lists, chapters, nodes,
indexes, cross references, & how to catch mistakes.  This second edition
describes over 50 new commands.

    `The Termcap Manual' (3rd Edition for Version 1.3), often described
as "twice as much as you ever wanted to know about termcap," details
the format of the termcap database, the definitions of terminal
capabilities, and the process of interrogating a terminal description.
This manual is primarily for programmers.

   The `C Library Reference Manual' (Edition 0.07 for Version 1.09)
describes the library's facilities, including both what Unix calls
"library functions" & "system calls."  We are doing small copier runs
of this manual until it becomes more stable.  Please send fixes to

   The `Emacs Calc Manual' (Edition 2.02 for Version 2.02) is both a
tutorial and a reference manual.  It tells how to do ordinary
arithmetic, how to use Calc for algebra, calculus, and other forms of
mathematics, and how to extend Calc.


How to Get GNU Software

   All the software & publications from the Free Software Foundation are
distributed with permission to copy and redistribute.  One way to get
GNU software is to copy it from someone else who has it.  You can also
get GNU software directly from the FSF by ordering CD-ROMs and books.
Such orders provide most of the funds for the FSF staff to develop more
free software, so please support our work by ordering from the FSF if
you can.  See the *note Free Software Foundation Order Form::.

   There are also third party groups who distribute our software.  Some
are listed in *Note Free Software Redistributors Donate::; also see
*Note Free Software for Microcomputers::.  Please note that the Free
Software Foundation is *not* affiliated with them in any way and is
*not* responsible for either the currency of their versions or the
swiftness of their responses.

   If you decide to do business with a commercial distributor of free
software, ask them how much they do to assist free software development,
e.g., by contributing money to free software development projects or by
writing free software themselves for general use.  By basing your
decision partially on this factor, you can help encourage support for
free software development.

   Our main FTP host is very busy & limits the number of logins.
Please use one of these other sites that also provide GNU software via
FTP (program: `ftp', user: `anonymous', password: YOUR E-MAIL ADDRESS,
mode: `binary').  If you can't reach one of them, get the software from
GNU's main FTP host, `prep.ai.mit.edu' (IP address: `').
More hosts & details are in `/pub/gnu/GETTING.GNU.SOFTWARE' &
`/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/FTP' on any host.

   Most of the files on the FTP sites are compressed with `gzip' to
lessen FTP traffic.  Refer to the `/pub/gnu/=README-about-.gz-files' on
each FTP site for instructions on uncompressing them.  `uncompress' and
`unpack' *do not work*!

   * Africa: `ftp.sun.ac.za'.

   * Asia: `utsun.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp', `cair-archive.kaist.ac.kr'.

   * Australia: `archie.au'  (`archie.oz' for ACSnet).

   * Canada: `ftp.cs.ubc.ca'.

   * Israel: `ftp.technion.ac.il'.

   * Europe: `ugle.unit.no', `ftp.funet.fi', `ftp.denet.dk',
     `ftp.vms.stacken.kth.se' (in `[.GNU-VMS]'), `src.doc.ic.ac.uk'
     `ftp.informatik.rwth-aachen.de', `ftp.win.tue.nl',
     `ftp.eunet.ch', `irisa.irisa.fr', `archive.eu.net'.

   * USA: `ftp.cs.columbia.edu', `vixen.cso.uiuc.edu',
     `ftp.hawaii.edu', `mango.rsmas.miami.edu' (VMS GCC),
     `wuarchive.wustl.edu', `ftp.uu.net' (in `/systems/gnu'),

If you can UUCP, get e-mail instructions from info@contrib.de (Europe).


FSF T-shirt

   The front of our T-shirt has the GNU Emacs Lisp code `(USE 'GNU)'
with "`()'" being the dancing parentheses from the cover of our `GNU
Emacs Lisp Reference Manual' (drawn by Berkeley, CA artist Etienne
Suvasa).  The shirt's back is imprinted with the Preamble to the GNU
General Public License.

   These shirts come in black, purple, red, pink, burgundy, blue, and
natural (off-white).  When you order, please give 3 choices.  Black and
purple are printed in white; the other colors are printed in black.
All shirts are thick 100% cotton, and come in sizes S, M, L, XL, and
XXL (but they run small so you may want a larger size than usual).

   GNU T-shirts often create spontaneous friendships at conferences &
on university campuses.  They also make great gifts for friends &
family, including children!




     *Language is thought, and the state has no right getting mixed up
     in it.*

     - Laurent Dominati, a member of the conservative Union
       for French Democracy, referring to a recent attempt to
       legislate usage of the French language




Free Software for Microcomputers

   We do not provide support for GNU software on most microcomputers
because it is peripheral to the GNU Project.  However, we are willing
to publish information about groups who do support and maintain them.
If you are aware of any such efforts, please send the details,
including postal addresses, archive sites, and mailing lists, to either
address on the top menu.

   *Note CD-ROMs::, for microcomputer software available from the FSF.
Please do not ask us about any other software.  We do *not* maintain
any of it and have *no* additional information.

   * Linux  Linux (named after its main author, Linus Torvalds) is a
     GPLed kernel that implements POSIX.1 functionality with SysV & BSD
     extensions.  Complete systems based on the Linux kernel are now
     available for Alpha & 386/486/Pentium/Pentium Pro machines with
     one of these buses: ISA, VLB, EISA, PCI.  Since these systems are
     essentially variant GNU systems, we call them "GNU/Linux" systems.
     An m68k port is in testing (it runs on high end Amiga & Atari
     computers).  PowerPC & MIPS ports are being worked on.  FTP it from
     `tsx-11.mit.edu' in `/pub/linux' (USA) & from `nic.funet.fi' in
     `/pub/OS/Linux' (Europe).

     Ask `majordomo@vger.rutgers.edu' about mailing lists.  See USENET
     newsgroups, e.g. `comp.os.linux.misc', for news.

   * Boston Computer Society

     The BCS has numerous free programs for microcomputers, including
     some GNU programs.  See URL: `http://www.bcs.org/' or ask:

          Boston Computer Society
          101A First Avenue - Suite 2
          Waltham, MA   02154
          Telephone: +1-617-290-5700
          Fax:       +1-617-290-5744
          Electronic-Mail: `membership@bcs.org'
          World Wide Web: `http://www.bcs.org/'

   * GNU Software on the Amiga

     Get Amiga ports of many GNU programs via FTP from `ftp.funet.fi'
     in `/pub/amiga/gnu' (Europe).  For info on (or offers to help
     with) the GCC port and related projects, ask Leonard Norrgard,
     `vinsci@nic.funet.fi'.  For info on the GNU Emacs port, ask Dave
     Gilbert, `dgilbert@jaywon.pci.on.ca' or see
     `http://www.pci.on.ca/~dgilbert/emacs-19.html' for a status update.
     You can get more info from a GNU FTP host (listed in *Note How to
     Get GNU Software::) in the file `/pub/gnu/MicrosPorts/Amiga'.

   * GNU Software for Atari TOS and Atari Minix

     Get Atari ports by anonymous FTP from `atari.archive.umich.edu',
     in `/atari/Gnustuff', maintained by Howard Chu, `howard@lloyd.com'.
     The GNU software runs on all Atari 68000 and 68030-based systems;
     a hard drive and 4 MB RAM minimum are recommended for using the
     compilers.  See USENET newsgroups, such as
     `comp.sys.atari.st.tech', for discussions.

   * GNU Software for OS/2

     Ports of many GNU programs are on the FTP host `ftp-os2.cdrom.com'
     in `/pub/os2'.  One of these is of the GNU C/C++/Objective-C
     Compiler to OS/2 2.x and OS/2 Warp, with the GNU assembler,
     documentation, and OS/2-specific C libraries.

     This is Eberhard Mattes' `emx' port, which also features GDB and
     many Unix-related library functions like `fork'.  Programs
     compiled by this port also run on a 80386 under DOS.  It is in
     directory `/pub/os2/lang/emx09b'.  `emx 0.9b' is a port of GCC
     2.7.2.  To join the e-mail list, send email containing `subscribe
     emx' to `majordomo@iaehv.nl'.


Project GNU Wish List

Wishes for this issue are for:

   * GNU art that highlights a program or aspect of the GNU Project.

   * Oleo extensions and other free software for business, such as
     accounting and project management programs.  Graphical free
     software applications for ordinary users who are not programmers.

   * Volunteers to distribute this Bulletin at technical conferences,
     trade shows, local and national user group meetings, etc.
     Volunteers to get articles into their user group newsletters.
     Please phone or fax the numbers on the top menu, or email
     `gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu' to make arrangements.

   * Boston area volunteers for various tasks in the FSF Distribution
     and Programming Offices.  Please contact us at either address on
     the top menu.

   * Volunteers to help write programs and documentation.  Send mail to
     `gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu' for the task list and coding standards.

   * Volunteers to type and proofread for the GNU Dictionary Project.
     *Note Forthcoming GNUs::, for details.

   * Volunteers to build binaries for Deluxe Distributions & systems
     not yet on the *Note Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM:: (especially
     systems that don't include a C compiler).  Please contact us at
     either address on the top menu.

   * A CD-ROM writer, SCSI tape drives for 4mm DAT cartridge tapes, 8mm
     Exabyte cartridge tapes, and 1600 or 6250bpi 1/2inch reel to reel

   * 600+ megabyte SCSI disks to give us more space to develop software.

   * Pentium Pro, Pentium, 486, or 386 PC laptops, notebooks, or
     compatibles with 200+ MB of disk & Ethernet cards.

   * 14.4 or faster modems.

   * Companies to lend good programmers & technical writers for at
     least six months.  True wizards may be welcome for less time, but
     we have found that this is the minimum time for a programmer to
     finish a worthwhile project.

   * Professors who might be interested in sponsoring or hosting
     research assistants to do actual GNU development, with partial FSF

   * Speech and character recognition software and systems (if the
     devices aren't too weird), with the device drivers if possible.
     This would help the productivity of partially disabled people
     (including a few we know).

   * New quotes and ideas for articles in the GNU's Bulletin.  We
     particularly like to highlight organizations involved with free
     information exchanges, software that uses the GNU General Public
     License, and companies providing free software support as a
     primary business.

   * Information about free software or developers of free software
     that we may not know about.  Often, we only find out about
     interesting projects because a user writes and asks us why we have
     not mentioned those projects!

   * Copies of newspaper and journal articles mentioning the GNU
     Project or GNU software.  Send these to the address on the top
     menu, or send a citation to `citations@prep.ai.mit.edu'.

   * Money, as always.

     If you use & appreciate our software, please send a contribution.
     One way to help is to order a CD-ROM, or Book with CD-ROM from us.
     A business can make a larger contribution by ordering a *Note
     Deluxe Distribution::.  This is especially helpful if you work for
     an organization where the word *donation* is anathema.  Because of
     the value received, the full dollar amounts of such donations are
     not tax-deductible as charitable contributions; however, they may
     qualify as a business expense.


Thank GNUs

   Thanks to Jill and Professor Donald Knuth of Stanford University,
Bradley Yearwood, Paul Eggert, D. A. Hall & N. A. Olsen, Tom & Patricia
Puckett, the Rubin Estate, Kyoto Micro Computer, Vance Petree, and Alan
Bram for their regular and/or substantial contributions, & to John
Romkey for his very large contribution.

   Thanks to all those mentioned elsewhere in this & past Bulletins.

   Thanks to the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Laboratory for
Computer Science, and Project Athena all at MIT for their invaluable

   Thanks to the many companies & organizations who have bought our
Deluxe Distribution; to Simon Karpen, Scott Kay, Reuven Lerner, Chuck
Campbell, Robert Lopez, Mike Miscevic, Timothy Mooney, Kay Nettle, Alan
Schwartz, Jason Verch, Karl Vogel, & PCI for helping to build Deluxe
Distributions; David Krikorian, James DuPrie, & David Caswell for
helping test our MS-DOS CD; Peter Ford, Joan Quigley, & Douglas Alan
for helping master GNU CDs.

   For their help in Japan, thanks to: Nobuyuki Hikichi, Mieko Hikichi,
Ken'ichi Handa, Prof. Masayuki Ida, Yukitoshi Fujimura, Prof. Takafumi
Hayashi, Takeshi Hayashi, Mr. Akiba, & Mr.  Nakamura.  Thanks to the
Hewlett Packard Computer Users' Association in Japan for their
quarterly donations.  Thanks to the Nihon Sun Users Group & Hitachi,
Ltd. for their generous contributions.  Thanks to Addison-Wesley
Publishers Japan Ltd., A.I. Soft, Village Center, Inc., ASCII
Corporation, & many others in Japan, for their continued donations &

   We thank those groups who have donated us booths at their
conferences, including the Sun Users Group.

   Thanks to all the volunteers who helped the GNU Project at
conferences; Barry Meikle of the University of Toronto Bookstore for
donating ad space; Warren A. Hunt, Jr. & Computational Logic, Inc. for
their continued donations & support; to Cygnus Support for helping the
GNU Project in many ways.

   Thanks to all who have lent or donated machines, including:
Hewlett-Packard for a CD write-once system; the Open Software
Foundation for ten 486s & two 386s; Tadashi Kobayashi of Toshiba
Corporation & Shinichi Mochizuki of Toshiba America for a T4850
notebook computer; Delta Microsystems for an Exabyte tape drive; an
anonymous donor for a 4mm DAT cartridge drive; Concentra, Inc. for four
HP workstations; Network Computing Devices, Inc. for three NCD
X-terminals; Russ Button for two SCSI disk drives; Simson Garfinkel for
an NCD X-terminal; IBM Corp. for an Exabyte tape drive & an RS/6000;
Hewlett-Packard for a dozen computers; MIT's Media Laboratory for an HP
68020; SONY Corp. & Software Research Associates, Inc., both of Tokyo,
for three SONY News workstations;  an anonymous donor for a Sun-3/280;
Liant Software Corp. for 5 VT100s; several anonymous donors & Rocky
Bernstein for IBM RT/PC hardware & manuals.

   Thanks to all who have contributed ports and extensions, as well as
all who have sent in other source code, documentation, and good bug

   Thanks to all those who sent money and offered other kinds of help.

   Thanks to all those who support us by ordering T-shirts, manuals,
reference cards, distribution CD-ROMs, and books.

   The creation of this Bulletin is our way of thanking all who have
expressed interest in what we are doing.


Donations Translate Into Free Software

   If you appreciate Emacs, GNU CC, Ghostscript, and other free
software, you may wish to help us make sure there is more in the
future--remember, *donations translate into more free software!*

   Your donation to us is tax-deductible in the United States.  We
gladly accept *any* currency, although the U.S. dollar is the most

   If your employer has a matching gifts program for charitable
donations, please arrange to: add the FSF to the list of organizations
for your employer's matching gifts program; and have your donation
matched (note *Note Cygnus Matches Donations!::).  If you do not know,
please ask your personnel department.

   Print out this form, circle the amount you are donating, and send
it with your donation to:

        Free Software Foundation, Inc.
        59 Temple Place - Suite 330
        Boston, MA  02111-1307

      $500   $250   $100   $50   Other $_____  Other currency:_____

You can charge a donation to any of Carte Blanche, Diner's Club, JCB,
MasterCard, Visa, or American Express.  Charges may also be faxed to

      Card type: __________________  Expiration Date: _____________
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      Street Address: _____________________________________________
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      Zip Code/Postal Code/Country: _______________________________
      Telephone Number: ___________________________________________
      Email Address: ______________________________________________


Cygnus Matches Donations!

   To encourage cash donations to the Free Software Foundation, Cygnus
Support will continue to contribute corporate funds to the FSF to
accompany gifts by its employees, and by its customers and their

   Donations payable to the Free Software Foundation should be sent by
eligible persons to Cygnus Support, which will add its gifts and
forward the total to the FSF each quarter.  The FSF will provide the
contributor with a receipt to recognize the contribution (which is
tax-deductible on U.S.  tax returns).  To see if your employer is a
Cygnus customer, or for more information, please contact Cygnus:

        Cygnus Support
        1937 Landings Drive
        Mountain View, CA   94043
        Telephone: 415-903-1400
                   +1-800-Cygnus1 (-294-6871)
        Fax:       415-903-0122
        Electronic-Mail: `info@cygnus.com'
        FTP: `ftp.cygnus.com'
        World Wide Web: `http://www.cygnus.com/'


Free Software Foundation Order Form

All items are distributed with permission to copy and to redistribute.
Texinfo source for each manual and source for each reference card is on
the appropriate CD-ROM; the prices for these magnetic
media do not include printed documentation.  All items are provided on
an ``as is'' basis, with no warranty of any kind.  Please allow six
weeks for delivery (though it won't usually take that long).


FSF Deluxe Distribution

(Please contact us with any questions.  *note Deluxe Distribution::.
for machine, operating system, and media types.)

____ @ $5000 = $ ______   The Deluxe Distribution, with manuals, etc.

Machine: _____________________________________________________________________

Operating system: ____________________________________________________________

Media type: __________________________________________________________________

Version of X Window System to build: _________________________________________

CD-ROMs, in ISO 9660 format (*note CD-ROMs::.):

GNU Source Code CD-ROMs, Version 8 with X11R6.1 
(*note July 1996 Source Code CD-ROMs::.): 

____ @ $240  = $ ______   for corporations and other organizations.

____ @ $ 60  = $ ______   for individuals.

Subscriptions, next 4 updates of the Source Code CD-ROM, in ISO 9660 format
(*note CD-ROM Subscription Service::.):

____ @ $720  = $ ______   for corporations and other organizations.

____ @ $180  = $ ______   for individuals.

GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, Version 3, December 1995 Edition
(*note Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM::.):

____ @ $220  = $ ______   for corporations and other organizations.

____ @  $55  = $ ______   for individuals.


*Note First Conference on Freely Redistributable Software::

____ @ $ 25  = $ ______   The Proceedings of the First Conference
                          on Freely Redistributable Software - only
                          available while supplies last.


These manuals (*note Documentation::.).  The latest version of each manual
will be shipped.  Please contact us if you want a specific version.

____ @ $ 25  = $ ______   GNU Emacs manual, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 50  = $ ______   GNU Emacs Lisp Reference manual, in two volumes.

____ @ $ 60  = $ ______   GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Japanese Edition.

____ @ $ 50  = $ ______   Using and Porting GNU CC.

____ @ $ 50  = $ ______   GNU C Library Reference Manual.

____ @ $ 50  = $ ______   GNU Emacs Calc manual, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Debugging with GDB, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 25  = $ ______   GNU Awk User's Guide.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   GNU Make.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Bison manual, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Flex manual, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Texinfo manual.

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Termcap manual.

Reference Cards

The following reference cards, in packets of ten.  For single copies please
contact us.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   GNU Emacs version 19 reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   GNU Emacs Calc reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   GDB reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   Bison reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   Flex reference cards.


GNU/FSF T-shirts, thick 100% cotton in sizes: S, M, L, XL, & XXL (they run
small); and in colors: black, purple, red, pink, burgundy, blue, &
natural (off-white); please list 1st, 2nd, and 3rd choice of color
(*note FSF T-shirt::.):

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Size _____

                          Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Size _____

                          Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Size  _____

                          Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Size _____

                          Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______

Older Items

Older items are only available while supplies last.

____ @ $  5  = $ ______   GNU Emacs version 18 reference cards, in packets
                           of ten.  For single copies, please contact us.

Please fill in the number of each older CD-ROM you order:

                                                for             for
                                                corporations    individuals:
                                                and other

GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM
        December 1994 (Version 2)               ____________    ____________

GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM
        December 1993 (Version 1)               ____________    ____________

Please note that the December 1994 Source CD is permanently out of stock.

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
        December 1995 (Version 7) with X11R6    ____________    ____________

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
        June 1995 (Version 6) with X11R6        ____________    ____________

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
        May 1994 (Version 4) with X11R6         ____________    ____________

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
        November 1993 (Version 3) with X11R5    ____________    ____________

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
        May 1993 (Version 2) with X11R5         ____________    ____________

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
        October 1992 (Version 1) with X11R5     ____________    ____________

Please put the total count and cost of the above older CD-ROMs here:

____ @ $ 80  = $ ______   for corporations and other organizations.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   for individuals.


      Subtotal $ ______

Tax and Shipping Costs

             + $ ______   For addresses in Massachusetts: add 5% sales tax
                          or give tax exempt number.  There is no sales tax
                          on T-shirts.

             + $ ______   Shipping fee for addresses in Alaska, Hawaii, or
                          Puerto Rico:
                            $  5.00 base charge;
                          + $  5.00 for *each* Emacs Calc or Emacs Lisp
                            Reference manual ($  5.00 * # of Mans);
                          + $ 20.00 for *each* CD-ROM subscription
                                             ($ 20.00 * # of Subs);
                          + $  1.00 for *each* item other then the above
                            (shipping for all other items =
                                              $  1.00 * # of Other Items).

             + $ ______   Shipping fee for most Foreign Destinations: (Please
                          do *not* use this formula for addresses in China,
                          Guam, Indonesia, Israel, Malaysia, New Zealand,
                          Philippines, and Thailand.  Please fax,
                          or contact us for an exact shipping quote.)
                            $ 20.00 base charge for orders to other
                              addresses outside of U.S., Canada, &
                              Puerto Rico: 
                          + $ 80.00 for *each*  CD-ROM subscription
                                             ($ 80.00 * # of Subs);
                          + $ 10.00 for *each* of the other items in the
                              order          ($ 10.00 * # of Items).

             + $ ______   Optional (tax-deductible in the U.S.) donation.
                          We suggest 5% if paying by credit card.

         TOTAL $ ______   We pay for shipping via UPS ground transportation in
                          the contiguous 48 states and Canada.  For very
                          large orders, ask about actual shipping costs for
                          that order.

Shipping Information

Name: ________________________________________________________________________

Mail Stop/Dept. Name: ________________________________________________________

Organization: ________________________________________________________________

Street Address: ______________________________________________________________

City/State/Province: _________________________________________________________

Zip Code/Postal Code/Country: ________________________________________________

In case of a problem with your order:

Telephone number: ____________________________________________________________

For international orders, please include a Fax number: _______________________

E-mail Address: ______________________________________________________________

|                                                                            |
|  Orders filled only upon receipt of check, money order, or credit card     |
|  order in U.S. dollars.  Unpaid orders will be returned to the sender.     |
|  We do not have the staff to handle the billing of unpaid orders.  Please  |
|  help keep our lives simple by including your payment with your order.     |
|                                                                            |

For orders from outside the U.S.:

You are responsible for paying all duties, tariffs, and taxes.  If you
refuse to pay the charges, the shipper will return or abandon the order.

 |                                                                         |
 |      Please make checks payable to the ``Free Software Foundation''.    |
 |                                                                         |
 |           Checks must be in U.S. dollars, drawn on a U.S. bank.         |
 |                                                                         |

For Credit Card Orders:

The Free Software Foundation takes these credit cards: Carte Blanche,
Diner's Club, JCB, MasterCard, Visa, or American Express.  Please note that
we are charged about 5% of an order's total amount in credit card
processing fees.  Please consider paying by check instead, or adding on a 5%
donation to make up the difference.  To place a credit card order, please
give us this information:

Card type: ___________________________________________________________________

Account Number: ______________________________________________________________

Expiration Date: _____________________________________________________________

Cardholder's Name: ___________________________________________________________

Cardholder's Signature: ______________________________________________________

|                                                                            |
|     If you wish to pay by wire transfer or you are a reseller, please      |
|     contact us or write us for details.                                    |
|                                                                            |

                Please mail orders to:  Free Software Foundation
                                        59 Temple Place - Suite 330
                                        Boston, MA   02111
PRICES AND CONTENTS MAY CHANGE          +1-617-542-5942
WITHOUT NOTICE AFTER January 31, 1997   Fax (including Japan): +1-617-542-2652

Version: July 1996 ASCII Bull to info-gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu


     Free Software Foundation, Inc                          |       |
     Electronic Mail: gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu                   | stamp |
     59 Temple Place - Suite 330                            |       |
     Boston, MA  02111-1307                                 | here  |
     USA                                                    |       |



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Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111, USA

Updated: 22 Feb 1997 tower