January 1996, GNU's Bulletin (Text Version)


GNU's Bulletin						 January, 1996

	   The GNU's Bulletin is the semi-annual newsletter of the

		   Free Software Foundation, bringing you

			 news about the GNU Project.

Free Software Foundation, Inc.		Telephone: +1-617-542-5942
59 Temple Place - Suite 330		Fax: (including Japan) +1-617-542-2652
Boston, MA   02111-1307	  USA		Electronic mail: `gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu'


Table of Contents

	GNU's Who
	Administrivia and Copyright
	Other GPL'ed Software
	What Is the FSF?
	What Is Copyleft?
	What Is the Hurd?
	Conditions for Using Bison
	Freely Available Texts
	First Free Software Conference
	GNUs Flashes
	Help from Free Software Companies
	Free Software Redistributors Donate
	Free Software Support
	Zimmermann Legal Defense Fund Appeal
	What Is the LPF?
	News from the LPF
	GNU & Other Free Software in Japan
	Help the GNU Translation Project
	Forthcoming GNUs
	GNU Software
	Program/Package Cross Reference
	   Languages Tape
	   Lisps/Emacs Tape
	   Utilities Tape
	   Scheme Tape
	   X11 Tapes
	   Berkeley 4.4BSD--Lite Tape
	   VMS Emacs and VMS Compiler Tapes
	   Pricing of the GNU CD-ROMs
	   December 1995 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM
	   MS-DOS Book with CD-ROM
	   Debian GNU/Linux Book with CD-ROM
	   Source Code CD-ROMs
	      December 1995 Source Code CD-ROMs
	      June 1995 Source Code CD-ROM
	      November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM
	MS-DOS Diskettes
	   DJGPP Diskettes
	   Emacs Diskettes
	   Selected Utilities Diskettes
	   Windows Diskette
	Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service
	The Deluxe Distribution
	GNU Documentation
	How to Get GNU Software
	FSF T-shirt
	Free Software for Microcomputers
	Project GNU Wish List
	Thank GNUs
	Donations Translate Into Free Software
	Cygnus Matches Donations!
	Free Software Foundation Order Form
	Address Page


GNU's Who

Miles Bader works on the Hurd with both Michael Bushnell, p/BSG and
Roland McGrath.	 Roland also maintains `make' and the GNU C library.
Karl Heuer enhances GNU Emacs and is in charge of making Deluxe Distributions.

Daniel Hagerty is our system obfuscator and release coordinator.
Melissa Weisshaus is working on special documentation projects.

Peter H. Salus has joined us temporarily to run the *Note First Conference on
Freely Redistributable Software::, in February, 1996 in Cambridge, MA.
Lisa Bloch is our Executive Director.  Robert J. Chassell is our
Secretary/Treasurer.  Britton Bradley, Mike Drain, and Gena L. Bean have have
left the FSF.  We thank them all for doing excellent work.

Thanks to volunteer Scott Ewing for helping to coordinate all the volunteers
in the GNU Project.  Thanks to volunteer Tami Friedman for handling much
administrivia here at the FSF.	Richard Stallman continues as a volunteer who
does countless tasks, such as Emacs maintenance.  Volunteer Len Tower remains
our online JOAT (jack-of-all-trades), handling mailing lists, gnUSENET
newsgroups, information requests, etc.

Administrivia and Copyright

Written and Edited by: Melissa Weisshaus, Daniel Hagerty,
  Robert J. Chassell, and Leonard H. Tower Jr.

Illustrations by: Etienne Suvasa

Japanese Edition by: Mieko Hikichi and Nobuyuki Hikichi

ISSN (International Standard Serial Number): 1075-7813

The GNU's Bulletin is published at the end of January and the end of June
each year.  Please note that there is no postal mailing list.  To get a copy,
send your name and address with your request to the address on page 1.
Enclosing $0.78 in U.S. Postage and/or a donation of a few dollars is
appreciated but not required.  If you're from outside the USA, sending a
mailing label and enough International Reply Coupons for a package of about
100 grams is appreciated but not required.  (Including a few extra
International Reply Coupons for copying costs is also appreciated.)

Copyright (C) 1996 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to anyone to make or distribute verbatim copies of this
document, in any medium, provided that the copyright notice and permission
notice are preserved, and that the distributor grants the recipient
permission for further redistribution as permitted by this notice.

Other GPL'ed Software

We maintain a list of copylefted software that we do not presently
distribute.  FTP the file `/pub/gnu/GPLedSoftware' from a GNU FTP host
(listed in *Note How to Get GNU Software::).  Please let us know of
additional programs we should mention.	We don't list GNU Emacs Lisp
Libraries; host `archive.cis.ohio-state.edu' has a list of those you can FTP
in the file `/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive/LCD-datafile.Z'.

What Is the FSF?

The Free Software Foundation is dedicated to eliminating restrictions on
people's right to use, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs.  We
do this by promoting the development and use of free software.	Specifically,
we are putting together a complete, integrated software system named "GNU"
("GNU's Not Unix", pronounced "guh-new") that will be upwardly compatible
with Unix.  Most parts of this system are already being used and distributed.

The word "free" in our name refers to freedom, not price.  You may or may not
pay money to get GNU software, but either way you have two specific freedoms
once you get it: first, the freedom to copy a program, and distribute it to
your friends and co-workers; and second, the freedom to change a program as
you wish, by having full access to source code.	 You can study the source and
learn how such programs are written.  You may then be able to port it,
improve it, and share your changes with others.	 If you redistribute GNU
software you may charge a distribution fee or give it away, so long as you
include the source code and the GNU General Public License; see *Note What Is
Copyleft::, for details.

Other organizations distribute whatever free software happens to be
available.  By contrast, the Free Software Foundation concentrates on the
development of new free software, working towards a GNU system complete
enough to eliminate the need to use a proprietary system.

Besides developing GNU, the FSF distributes GNU software and manuals for a
distribution fee, and accepts gifts (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to support
GNU development.  Most of the FSF's funds come from its distribution service.

The Board of the Foundation is: Richard M. Stallman, President;
Robert J. Chassell, Secretary/Treasurer; Gerald J. Sussman, Harold Abelson,
and Leonard H. Tower Jr., Directors.

What Is Copyleft?

The simplest way to make a program free is to put it in the public domain,
uncopyrighted.	But this permits proprietary modified versions, which deny
others the freedom to redistribute and modify; such versions undermine the
goal of giving freedom to *all* users.	To prevent this, "copyleft" uses
copyrights in a novel manner.  Typically, copyrights take away freedoms;
copyleft preserves them.  It is a legal instrument that requires those who
pass on a program to include the rights to use, modify, and redistribute the
code; the code and the freedoms become legally inseparable.

The copyleft used by the GNU Project is made from the combination of a
regular copyright notice and the "GNU General Public License" (GPL).  The GPL
is a copying license which basically says that you have the aforementioned
freedoms.  An alternate form, the "GNU Library General Public License"
(LGPL), applies to a few (but not most) GNU libraries.	This license permits
linking the libraries into proprietary executables under certain conditions.
The appropriate license is included in each GNU source code distribution and
in many manuals.  Printed copies are available upon request.

We strongly encourage you to copyleft your programs and documentation, and we
have made it as simple as possible for you to do so.  The details on how to
apply either form of GNU Public License appear at the end of each license.

What Is the Hurd?

The Hurd will be the foundation of the GNU system.  It is a collection of
server processes that run on top of Mach, a free message-passing kernel
developed at CMU.  Mach's virtual memory management facilities are also used
by the Hurd.  The GNU C Library will provide the Unix system call interface,
using the Hurd servers for those services it can't provide itself.

The Hurd will allow users to create and share useful projects without knowing
much about the internal workings of the system--projects that might never
have been attempted without freely available source, a well-designed
interface, and a multiple server design.  The Hurd is thus like other
expandable FSF projects, such as GNU Emacs.

Currently, there are free ports of the Mach kernel to the 386 PC, the DEC
PMAX workstation, and several other machines, with more in progress,
including the Amiga, PA-RISC HP 700, & DEC Alpha-3000.	Contact us if you
want to help with one of these or start your own.  Porting the GNU Hurd & GNU
C Library is easy (easier than porting GNU Emacs, certainly easier than
porting the compiler) once a Mach port to a particular platform exists.
Right now we are using the University of Utah's Mach distribution which we
hope will be unified with the distribution produced by the Open Software

See *Note GNUs Flashes:: for a report on recent progress.

We need help with significant Hurd related projects.  Experienced system
programmers who are interested should send mail to `gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu'.
Porting the Mach kernel or the GNU C Library to new systems is another way to

The Hurd is not yet ready for use, but in the meantime you can use a
GNU/Linux system.

Conditions for Using Bison

As of Bison version 1.24, we have changed the distribution terms for
`yyparse' to permit using Bison's output in non-free programs.	Formerly,
Bison parsers could only be used in programs that were free software.

The other GNU tools, such as the GNU C compiler, have never had such a
requirement.  They could always be used for non-free software.	The reason
Bison was different was not due to a special policy decision; it resulted
from applying the usual GNU General Public License to all of the Bison source

The output of the Bison utility--a parser file--contains a verbatim copy of a
sizable piece of Bison: the code for the `yyparse' function.  (The actions
from your grammar are inserted into `yyparse' at one point, but the rest of
the function is not changed.)  When we applied the GPL terms to the code for
`yyparse', the effect was to restrict the use of Bison output to free

We didn't change the terms because of sympathy for people who want to make
software proprietary.  *Software should be free.*  But we concluded that
limiting Bison's use to free software was doing little to encourage people to
make other software free.  So we decided to make the practical conditions for
using Bison match the practical conditions for using the other GNU tools.

Freely Available Texts

Freely redistributable information isn't just software.	 We have a list of
groups providing various books, historical documents, and more.	 You can FTP
the list in the file `/pub/gnu/FreelyAvailableTexts' from a GNU FTP host
(listed in *Note How to Get GNU Software::).  Please let either address on
page 1 know of additional entries.

First Free Software Conference

The Free Software Foundation is holding the First Conference on Freely
Redistributable Software on February 2-5, 1996, in Cambridge, Massachusetts,
at the Cambridge Center Marriott.  Over the past 15 years, free software has
become ubiquitous.  This Conference is bringing together implementors of
several types of freely redistributable software.

The program on Sunday, Feb. 4 includes keynote speeches by Linus Torvalds &
Richard Stallman, & presentations from Switzerland, France, the United
Kingdom, & Germany, as well as from the United States.

Tutorials on Saturday, February 3, will be:
	Linux (Phil Hughes),
	Expect (Don Libes),
	C News (Geoff Collyer & Henry Spencer), and
	Advanced Emacs (Richard Stallman).

Tutorials on Monday, February 5, will be:
	GNU Hurd (Michael Bushnell, p/BSG),
	BSD Internals (Margo Seltzer & Aaron Brown),
	Perl (Tom Christiansen), and
	GCC (Richard Stallman).

For registration information, write `confinfo@gnu.ai.mit.edu' or contact the
FSF's Office at one of the numbers on page 1.

GNUs Flashes

   * GPL in Use at the University of Texas

     The University of Texas System now specifically allows the GNU General
     Public License to be used by faculty at all 15 institutions to distribute
     software they write.  Although the System provides opportunities for
     faculty to commercialize their `inventions' to bring in revenue, it
     recognizes circumstances under which software should be freely
     redistributable.  The System states that the GPL offers "a convenient and
     widely accepted method of public distribution that ensures the public
     access to and use of software intended for their benefit.

   * Cancer Clinic Relies on Freely Redistributable Software

     The Roger Maris Cancer Center in Fargo, ND, sees about 1500 new patients
     each year.	 They are using a network of GNU/Linux systems to run the
     Center's information system, coordinate drug therapies, and perform many
     other functions.  This environment needs to be available to the Center's
     staff at a moment's notice.  According to Dr. G.W. Wettstein, "the
     proper care of our cancer patients would not be what it is today without
     Linux ... The tools that we have been able to deploy from free software
     channels have enabled us to write and develop innovative applications
     which ... do not exist through commercial avenues."

   * Hurd   (Also *note What Is the Hurd::.)

     Much important progress has been made on the Hurd.	 Reliability has been
     greatly improved, thanks to a variety of small bug fixes.	The TCP/IP
     support is now in place, with much of the code borrowed from GNU/Linux.
     Telnet, FTP, `rsh', and so forth all work.	 The NFS client
     implementation is almost finished as we go to press, and will probably be
     working by the time you read this.

     Look for an alpha release sometime soon; when that is ready, we will
     solicit volunteers using the Hurd announcements list.  To be added to
     this list, send mail to `hurd-announce-request@prep.ai.mit.edu'.

   * The GNU Music Project

     GNU Music provides tools for manipulating various representations of
     music.  Currently, it is concentrating on tools to edit, print, and play
     musical scores.  The project allows for rhythmic, tonal music based on
     the traditional seven note scale; it aims to provide an interesting
     environment for musicians.	 To help test GNU Music, send mail to
     `majordomo@iro.umontreal.ca' with a line that says
     `subscribe music-pretest' in the body.

   * A New FSF T-shirt!	  (*Note FSF T-shirt::)

     We have a new T-shirt.  This design was inspired by the cover of the
     `GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual'.

   * The Free Model Foundation

     The Free Model Foundation (FMF) was created recently as a "focal point
     for access, creation, and distribution of simulation and analysis
     models".  It provides freely redistributable software for tool and
     component vendors and their customers.  The FMF has already created an
     archive of these models of electronic components (see
     `http://www.vhdl.org/vi/fmf'); all models are software and thus covered
     by the GNU General Public License.

     Presently, the FMF is seeking contributions in the form of software
     programming (C, C++, Verilog, VHDL/VITAL), hardware, EDA software,
     models, and other resources in support of this operation.	For more
     information, see the FMF's Web Site, or contact `Luis.Garcia@vhdl.org'.

   * GLPed Wind Tunnel Data Analyzer

     Want to fly high?	Michael Selig, at the University of Illinois at
     Urbana-Champaign, has released a program that contains the results of
     wind tunnel tests on wings for model airplanes.  This information is
     useful to model airplane builders and designers.  The program is
     released under the GNU General Public License.  See

   * Cyclic Software Does CVS!	   (See item CVS in *Note GNU Software::)

     Cyclic Software maintains & enhances CVS for GNU while also selling
     support for it.  See `http://www.cyclic.com', or email `info@cyclic.com'.

   * GNU Emacs 19.30   (*Note GNU Software::)

     We have just released Emacs 19.30.	 New features include support for menu
     bars on text-only terminals, a total rewrite of GNUS, multiple frames on
     Windows NT and Windows 95, & many others.

   * Utah Flux Project Software

     Mach 4 is a new version of the Mach kernel which comes in two flavors.
     The x86 version increases Mach 3's ease of use & practicality in a PC
     environment; has a much simpler GNU-style build environment; boots using
     GNU/Linux, NetBSD, FreeBSD, or Mach boot loaders; has
     source-compatibility with GNU/Linux network device drivers (& block
     device drivers soon); new device drivers; & support for the Lites
     server.  Utah provides sources & pre-built binaries for the kernel &
     Lites server, and the compiler tools to build Mach 4 under GNU/Linux,
     NetBSD, or FreeBSD.  The PA-RISC 1.1 (HP 700) version includes the new
     build environment, some research on improving Mach RPC, & complete
     HP 700 support.  It is less robust than the x86 version.  To get on the
     list, send mail to `mach4-users-request@cs.utah.edu'.

     Lites is a usable Mach-based Unix single server based on 4.4 BSD-Lite,
     originally done by CMU & HUT.  x86 Lites supports binary compatibility
     with GNU/Linux, NetBSD, & FreeBSD, & groks GNU/Linux filesystems.	Utah
     distributes the current Lites version, with binaries for x86 & PA-RISC.
     The PA version runs BSD/ELF & most HP-UX binaries.

     OMOS is a fully programmable class server/linker/loader using Scheme as
     its meta-language & the BFD package for portability.  x86/a.out &
     PA-RISC/SOM are supported.

     See `http://www.cs.utah.edu/projects/flux/', dial +1-801-585-3271, FTP
     `flux.cs.utah.edu:/flux', or mail `flux-dist@cs.utah.edu' to get them.

   * Postscript Versions of GNU Manuals Available for FTP

     FTP host `phi.sinica.edu.tw' has Postscript files (for A4 paper) of GNU
     manuals in `/pub/aspac/gnu/', including some manuals the FSF does not
     yet publish.  The FSF is not responsible for these files.

   * Source CD-ROM and Tape Subscriptions

     We offer a subscription service for both our Source Code CD-ROM and some
     of our tapes.  For the price of 3 CDs or tapes (plus any shipping
     costs), you get the next 4 that we make.  We make between two and four
     updates a year.  *Note Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service::.

   * The FSF Takes Credit Cards

     We take these credit cards: Carte Blanche, Diner's Club, MasterCard, JCB,
     Visa, and American Express.  Please note that we are charged about 5% of
     an order's total amount in credit card processing fees.  Please consider
     paying by check instead or adding on a 5% donation to make up the

   * New Programs on the Tapes	 (*Note GNU Software::)

     `gettext' is now on the *Note Languages Tape::.  Termutils & Midnight
     Commander have been added to the *Note Utilities Tape::.  CLX has been
     added to the *Note Lisps/Emacs Tape::.  Newer versions of many of our
     programs & manuals have been placed on all the media we distribute.

   * New Source Code CD!

     We have just released the December 1995 Source Code CD-ROMs (Edition 7).
     Due to increasing amounts of GNU Software, the Source Code CD is now a
     two disc set--the price remains unchanged!	 The new programs included
     are: apache, CLX, Elisp archive, `ffcall', `gettext', GN, Gnans,
     `gnuserv', Hyperbole, Midnight Commander, Oaklisp, SIPP, SNePS, Spinner,
     W3, and `xgrabsc'.	 *Note GNU Software::, for more information about
     these packages.  Also on the CD-ROMs are full distributions of MIT X11R6
     (both our Required & Optional distributions), MIT Scheme 7.3, Emacs
     19.30, GCC 2.7.1, and current versions of all other GNU Software.	For
     more information, see *Note December 1995 Source Code CD-ROMs::.

   * New Compiler Tools CD-ROM

     We have a new edition of the Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM with updated
     versions of much of its software.	It contains executables of the GNU
     compiler tools for some systems that don't normally come with a
     compiler.	This allows users of those systems to compile their own
     software without having to buy a proprietary compiler.

     We hope to include more systems with each update of this CD-ROM.  If you
     can help build binaries for new systems or have one to suggest, please
     contact us at either address on page 1.  For more information, see *Note
     Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM::.

   * New/Updated Manuals since Last Bulletin   (*Note Documentation::)

     We have a new manual: `The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, Japanese
     Edition' - the FSF would like to thank the team of over 30 Japanese who
     did the translation.  These new editions include bug fixes and
     additional information: `The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual', `GNU
     Make', `Bison', `Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction', and `The
     Termcap Manual'.

   * Older FSF CD-ROMs Available at a Reduced Price

     While supplies last, older versions of our CD-ROMs are available at a
     reduced price.  Note that the newest version has bug fixes and
     improvements that the older versions do not.  See the *note Free
     Software Foundation Order Form::..

   * GNU Software Works on MS-DOS   (Also *note GNU Software::.)

     GNU Emacs 19 and many other GNU programs have been ported to MS-DOS for
     i386/i486/Pentium machines.  We ship binaries & sources on the *Note
     DJGPP Diskettes::; *Note Emacs Diskettes::; *Note Selected Utilities
     Diskettes::; & the *Note Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM::.	 We will ship
     binaries & sources on the *Note MS-DOS Book with CD-ROM::, when it is

Help from Free Software Companies

When choosing a free software business, ask those you are considering how
much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money
to free software development or by writing free software improvements
themselves for general use.  By basing your decision partially on this
factor, you can help encourage those who profit from free software to
contribute to its growth.

Wingnut (SRA's special GNU support group) regularly donates a part of its
income to the FSF to support the development of new GNU programs.  Listing
them here is our way of thanking them.	Wingnut has made a pledge to donate
10% of their income to the FSF, and has purchased several Deluxe Distribution
packages in Japan.  Also see *Note Cygnus Matches Donations!::.

	Wingnut Project
	Software Research Associates, Inc.
	1-1-1 Hirakawa-cho, Chiyoda-ku
	Tokyo 102, Japan

	Phone:	(+81-3)3234-2611
	Fax:	(+81-3)3942-5174
	E-mail: `info-wingnut@sra.co.jp'
	WWW: `http://www.sra.co.jp/public/sra/product/wingnut/'

Free Software Redistributors Donate

The SNOW 2.1 CD producers added the words "Includes $5 donation to the FSF"
to the front of their CD.  Potential buyers will know just how much of the
price is for the FSF & how much is for the redistributor.

The Sun Users Group Deutschland & ASCII Corporation (Japan) have added
donations to the FSF to the price of their next GNU software CD-ROMs.

Austin Code Works, a free software redistributor, supports free software
development by giving the FSF 20% of the selling price for the GNU software
CDs they produce & sell.

Walnut Creek CDROM & Info Magic, free software redistributors, are also
giving us part of their selling price.

TOHDO-SHA is donating 400 yen to the FSF for each copy of `The GNU Emacs Lisp
Reference Manual, Japanese Edition' sold at bookstores in Japan.

CQ Publishing made a large donation from the sales of their GAWK book in

In the long run, the success of free software depends on how much new free
software people develop.  Free software distribution offers an opportunity to
raise funds for such development in an ethical way.  These redistributors
have made use of the opportunity.  Many others let it go to waste.

You can help promote free software development by convincing for-a-fee
redistributors to contribute--either by doing development themselves or by
donating to development organizations (the FSF and others).

The way to convince distributors to contribute is to demand and expect this
of them.  This means choosing among distributors partly by how much they give
to free software development.  Then you can show distributors they must
compete to be the one who gives the most.

To make this work, you must insist on numbers that you can compare, such as,
"We will give ten dollars to the Foobar project for each disk sold." A vague
commitment, such as "A portion of the profits is donated," doesn't give you a
basis for comparison.  Even a precise fraction "of the profits from this
disk" is not very meaningful, since creative accounting and unrelated
business decisions can greatly alter what fraction of the sales price counts
as profit.

Also, press developers for firm information about what kind of development
they do or support.  Some kinds make much more long-term difference than
others.	 For example, maintaining a separate version of a GNU program
contributes very little; maintaining a program on behalf of the GNU Project
contributes much.  Easy new ports contribute little, since someone else would
surely do them; difficult ports such as adding a new CPU to the GNU compiler
or Mach contribute more; major new features and programs contribute the most.

By establishing the idea that supporting further development is "the proper
thing to do" when distributing free software for a fee, we can assure a
steady flow of resources for making more free software.

Free Software Support

The Free Software Foundation does not provide technical support.  Our mission
is developing software, because that is the most time-efficient way to
increase what free software can do.  We leave it to others to earn a living
providing support.  We see programmers as providing a service, much as
doctors and lawyers do now; both medical and legal knowledge are freely
redistributable, but their practitioners charge for service.

The GNU Service Directory is a list of people who offer support and other
consulting services.  It is in the file `etc/SERVICE' in the GNU Emacs
distribution, `SERVICE' in the GCC distribution, and
`/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/SERVICE' on a GNU FTP host (listed in *Note How to Get GNU
Software::).  Contact us to get a copy or to be listed in it.  Those service
providers who share their income with the FSF are listed in *Note Help from
Free Software Companies::.

If you find a deficiency in any GNU software, we want to know.	We have many
Internet mailing lists for bug reports, announcements, and questions.  They
are also gatewayed into USENET news as the `gnu.*' newsgroups.	You can
request a list of the mailing lists from either address on page 1.

When we receive a bug report, we usually try to fix the problem.  While our
bug fixes may seem like individual assistance, they are not; they are part of
preparing a new improved version.  We may send you a patch for a bug so that
you can help us test the fix and ensure its quality.  If your bug report does
not evoke a solution from us, you may still get one from another user who
reads our bug report mailing lists.  Otherwise, use the Service Directory.

Please do not ask us to help you install software or learn how to use it--but
do tell us how an installation script fails or where documentation is unclear.

If you have no Internet access, you can get mail and USENET news via UUCP.
Contact a local UUCP site or a commercial UUCP site.  such as:

	UUNET Technologies, Inc.
	3060 Williams Drive
	Fairfax, VA   22031-4648

	Telephone: +1-800-4UUNET4
	Fax:	   +1-703-206-5601
	Electronic-Mail: `info@uunet.uu.net'

A list of commercial UUCP and Internet service providers is posted
periodically to USENET in the newsgroup `news.announce.newusers' with
`Subject: How to become a USENET site'.	 You can also get it via anonymous
FTP from the host `rtfm.mit.edu' in the file `How_to_become_a_USENET_site',
in the directory `/pub/usenet-by-group/news.announce.newusers'.

When choosing a service provider, ask those you are considering how much they
do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free
software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for
general use.  By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can
encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth.


     *Digital technology is the universal solvent of intellectual property

     - Tom Parmenter (in DESPERADO No. 12)


Zimmermann Legal Defense Fund Appeal

Phil Zimmermann, who wrote the public-key encryption program known as Pretty
Good Privacy ("PGP") and released it on the Internet, is facing prosecution
for "exporting" it out of the United States.

There is a law prohibiting the export of encryption software from the US.
Zimmermann did not do this, but the U.S. Government hopes to establish that
posting an encryption program on a BBS or on the Internet constitutes
exporting it--in effect, stretching export control into domestic censorship.

If the U.S. Government wins, that will have a chilling effect on the free
flow of information on the global network, as well as on everyone's privacy
from government snooping.

Estimates are that Zimmermann's defense will cost over $100,000--and that
doesn't even count lawyers' fees.  To help pay this, a legal trust fund, the
Philip Zimmermann Defense Fund (PZDF), has been setup.	Donations are
accepted by check, money order, credit card, or wire transfer; and in any
currency.  See `http://www.netresponse.com:80/zldf' for more information,

To send a check or money order by mail, make it payable, *not* to Phil
Zimmermann, but to "Philip L. Dubois, Attorney Trust Account." Mail the check
or money order to the following address:

	Philip Dubois
	2305 Broadway
	Boulder, CO   80304

	Telephone: +1-303-444-3885

To send a wire transfer, your bank needs this information:
	Bank: VectraBank
	Routing #: 107004365
	Account #: 0113830
	Account Name: ``Philip L. Dubois, Attorney Trust Account''

What Is the LPF?

The League for Programming Freedom (LPF) aims to protect the freedom to write
software.  This freedom is threatened by "look-and-feel" interface copyright
lawsuits and by software patents.

The League is a grass-roots organization of professors, students, business
people, programmers, users, & even software companies dedicated to bringing
back the freedom to write programs.  The League isn't opposed to the legal
system that Congress intended--copyright on individual programs.  The League
aims to reverse recent changes made by judges in response to special

Membership dues in the League are $42 per year for programmers, managers, and
professionals; $10.50 for students; $21 for others.

To join, please send a check and the following information:

   * Your name and phone numbers (home, work, or both).

   * The address to use for League mailings, a few each year (please indicate
     whether it is your home address or your work address).

   * The company you work for, and your position.

   * Your email address, so the League can contact you for political action.
     (If you don't want to be contacted for this, please say so, but please
     provide your email address anyway.)

   * Please mention anything about you which would enable your
     endorsement of the League to impress the public.

   * Please say whether you would like to help with League activities.

*The League is not connected with the Free Software Foundation, and is not
concerned with the issue of free software.*  The FSF supports the League
because, like any software developer smaller than Microsoft, it is endangered
by software patents, and interface copyrights.	You are in danger, too!	 It
would be easy to ignore the problem until you or your employer is sued, but
it is more prudent to organize before that happens.

If you haven't made up your mind yet, write to the League for more

	League for Programming Freedom
	One Kendall Square - #143
	P.O. Box 9171
	Cambridge, MA	02139

	Telephone: +1-617-621-7084
	Electronic-Mail: `lpf@uunet.uu.net'
	WWW: `http://www.lpf.org/'
	FTP: `ftp.uu.net:/doc/lpf'

News from the LPF

by Dean Anderson, President, League for Programming Freedom

LPF Works on Two Briefs for the Lotus/Borland Case

In the last GNU's Bulletin, we said the LPF would file an Amicus Brief with
the Supreme Court.  In fact, we went one better by collecting a very
impressive list of over 80 signatures of prominent computer scientists.	 We
also wrote & filed a brief on behalf of the LPF, & contributed to another
brief filed on behalf of an ad-hoc organization ("Computer Scientists in
support of Respondent").  LPF members contributed significantly to both
briefs, and both are very solid.  The LPF will add the text of these briefs &
some others to our web site.

The LPF Has New Office Space

Ignis Technology has graciously given the LPF office space.  We will announce
our new phone and fax numbers in January on `http://www.lpf.org/'.

Next Steps for the LPF

Win or lose in the Supreme Court, the next battle the LPF fights will be in
the Congress.  It seems unlikely (though not impossible, so we'll keep
trying) that the Courts or the Patent & Trademark Office will reverse the
current software patent situation.  If we lose in the Supreme Court, we will
have to try to change the copyright law as well.  Therefore, it is very
important to get more members.	Membership is what will get us the most clout
with Congress.	In the next year, we will need to gear up to promote our
ideas more widely, both inside & outside of the software world.	 Your help &
support is very important to the success of this effort, so encourage
everyone you know to join the LPF!

Keep writing letters!  Write the LPF, your representatives, newspapers,
journals, and others.  See our Web page at `http://www.lpf.org/' for more
info on how to help the LPF (send suggestions to `webmasters@lpf.org').

GNU & Other Free Software in Japan

Mieko (`h-mieko@sra.co.jp') and Nobuyuki Hikichi (`hikichi@sra.co.jp')
continue to volunteer for the GNU Project in Japan.  They translate each
issue of this Bulletin into Japanese and distribute it widely, along with
their translation of Version 2 of the GNU General Public License.  This
translation of the GPL is authorized by the FSF and is available by anonymous
FTP from `ftp.sra.co.jp' in `/pub/gnu/local-fix/GPL2-j'.  They are working on
a formal translation of the GNU Library General Public License.	 They also
solicit donations and offer GNU software consulting.

`nepoch' (the Japanese version of Epoch) & MULE are available and widely used
in Japan.  MULE (the MULtilingual Enhancement of GNU Emacs) can handle many
character sets at once.	 Its features are being merged into the principal
version of Emacs.  *Note GNU Software::, for more details on MULE.  The FSF
does not distribute `nepoch', but MULE is available (*note December 1995
Source Code CD-ROMs::. & the *Note Emacs Diskettes::).	FTP it from
`sh.wide.ad.jp' in `/JAPAN/mule', or `etlport.etl.go.jp' in `/pub/mule'.

An anonymous user in Japan has redistributed GNU material that was left over
from an FSF Tokyo seminar.  He bought these items for reader presents in
magazines of Gijitsu Hyouron-Sha, a publishing company.

The Village Center, Inc. prints a Japanese translation (ISBN 4-938704-02-1)
of the `GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual' and puts the Texinfo source on
various bulletin boards.  They also publish Nobuyuki & Mieko's `Think GNU'
(ISBN 4-938704-10-2); this may be the first non-FSF copylefted publication in
Japan.	They also redistribute GNU CD-ROMs at this bookstore:

	Shosen Grande
	1-3-2 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku
	Tokyo 101,   Japan

	Telephone: 03-3295-0011

Part of Village Center's profits are donated to the FSF.  Their address is:

	Village Center, Inc.
	3-2 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku
	Tokyo 101,   Japan

	Telephone: 03-3221-3520

Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd. has printed Japanese translations of the
`GNU Make Manual' (ISBN 4-7952-9627-X) and the `GAWK Manual' (ISBN
4-7952-9672-8).	 Their address is:

	Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd.
	Nichibou Bldg. 2F
	1-2-2 Sarugaku-cho, Chiyoda-ku
	Tokyo 101,   Japan

	Telephone: 03-3291-4581

There is a mailing list in Japan to discuss both hardware & software which is
under the GNU General Public License.  It provides information about making
your own computer system.  The main language of the list is Japanese.  If you
are interested in getting information or having discussions in English, ask
`mka@apricot.juice.or.jp' or `ishiz@muraoka.info.waseda.ac.jp'.

Many groups in Japan now distribute GNU software.  They include JUG, a PC
user group; ASCII, a periodical and book publisher; the Fujitsu FM Towns
users group; and SRA's special GNU users' support group, Wingnut, who also
purchased the first Deluxe Distribution package in Japan.  (Since then, there
have been several other purchases of Deluxe Distribution packages in Japan.)

It is easy to place an order directly with the FSF from Japan, thus funding
new software.  To get an FSF Order Form written in Japanese, ask
`japan-fsf-orders@prep.ai.mit.edu'.  We encourage you to buy software on
tapes or CDs: for example, 140 CD-ROM orders at the corporate rate allow the
FSF to hire a programmer for a year to write more free software.

Maintenance and Further Development of ICOT Free Software

Many programs in the field of parallel processing and knowledge processing
were released to the public under the name of "ICOT Free Software (IFS)" in
the Fifth Generation Computer Systems project.	IFS was an 11-year Japanese
project started in 1982 and FGCS was its 2-year follow-on project.

These programs have been accessed by more than 3,300 persons and almost
18,000 files have been transferred since their first release in 1992.  As
ICOT was wound up in June, 1995, maintenance and further development of IFS
was transferred to Japan Information Processing Development Center (JIPDEC).
JIPDEC established a new research institute called "Laboratory for Advanced
Information Technology".  The Laboratory not only maintains, develops, and
distributes IFS, but also develops parallel knowledge processing software in
collaboration with several Japanese universities.  Newly developed software
will be released to the public with conditions similar to those of IFS.

For now, the domain name will remain `icot.or.jp'.  For more information,
please consult URL `http://www.icot.or.jp/'.

Help the GNU Translation Project

GNU is going international!  Our Translation Project gets users, translators,
and maintainers together, so GNU will gradually speak many native languages.

To complete the GNU Translation Project, we need many people who like their
own language and write it well, and who are also able to synergize with other
translators speaking the same language as part of "translation teams".

If you want to start a new team, or want more information on existing teams
or other aspects of this project, write `gnu-translation@prep.ai.mit.edu'.
Also see *Note GNU Software::, for information about `gettext', the tool the
GNU Translation Project uses to help translators and programmers.

Forthcoming GNUs

Information about the current status of released GNU programs can be found in
*Note GNU Software::.  Here is some news of future plans.

   * GNU C Library   (For current status, *note GNU Software::..)

     While there has not been a new release of our C library in some time, a
     great deal of work is going on; we hope for a new release in the next few
     months.  Much of Roland's recent work has focused on support for
     GNU/Hurd, where the library does much more work than in Unix (*note What
     Is the Hurd::.).  He has also been working closely with Ulrich Drepper
     on support for GNU/Linux; we intend a future release of the GNU C
     library to compatibly supersede the heavily modified version now used
     with GNU/Linux.  The new release will add several new functions
     traditionally found in Unix systems & some small new GNU extensions, as
     well as major new internationalization support.  Ulrich Drepper has
     contributed to the library a great deal in the last few months, by
     writing new floating-point printing/reading functions that are perfectly
     accurate & much faster than the old code.	He has also written a
     complete set of internationalization features including
     POSIX.2-compatible `locale' & `localedef' programs, & catalogs for
     displaying program messages in languages other than English.  The
     library now builds as a shared library for systems that use the ELF
     object file format.  Included is the run-time loader `ld.so' which sets
     up the shared libraries when a program runs; it works now with the Hurd
     & Linux kernels, and is easy to port to other ELF systems such as SVR4 &
     Solaris 2.

   * GNU Emacs	 (For current status, *note GNU Software::.)

     Future versions of Emacs will save the undo history in a file (which
     allows you to undo older changes in the history), and will also have
     support for variable-width fonts, wide character sets, and the world's
     major languages.  Our long term plan is to move it in the direction of a
     WYSIWYG word processor & make it easier for beginners to use.

   * GNUStep   (Also see "Objective-C Library" in *Note GNU Software::)

     OpenStep is an object-oriented application programming interface
     specification being proposed as an open object standard.  Since its
     announcement over two years ago, there has been much interest in a GNU
     implementation, named GNUStep.  Work has begun on GNUStep, starting from
     a library written in Objective-C.	Much remains to be done to bring this
     library close to the OpenStep specifications.  Volunteers should contact
     `office@gnustep.org'.  Check `http://www.gnustep.org/gnustep' for more

   * `recode'	 (For current status, *note GNU Software::.)

     The next `recode' release should give more flexible control over
     encodings of charsets, offer MIME conversions, & handle ISO-10646
     (Unicode).	 It will install a library & support files to help work
     towards internationalizing GNU.

   * GUILE

     GNU's Ubiquitous Extension Language is an SCM-based library which
     programmers can use to make any ordinary C program extensible.  (For
     info on SCM, see "JACAL" in *Note GNU Software::.)

     GUILE already includes a POSIX.1 interface, an SCSH-like library, a
     module system, a Tk interface, & a byte-code interpreter; support for
     Emacs Lisp & a more C-like language is coming.

     Get snapshots from `ftp.cygnus.com:/pub/lord'.

   * `ptx'   (For current status, *note GNU Software::.)

     The next release of `ptx' should offer contextualized support for SGML
     texts, as the first step towards a major overhaul for that package.

   * GNU Common Lisp   (For current status, *note GNU Software::.)

     Version 2.2 of GNU Common Lisp (GCL) was released in November '95.	 It
     now includes a graphical interface to the Tk widget system.  All
     documentation is now Texinfo-based, with built-in regexp matching used
     to access the documentation.  A first pass at the Common Lisp condition
     system is also included.  Some new ports include DEC Alpha and ELF for
     GNU/Linux.	 Volunteers to help with the move to the ANSI standard are
     most welcome; contact `schelter@math.utexas.edu'.

   * C Interpreter

     We hope to add interpreter facilities to our compiler and debugger.  This
     task is partly finished.  GCC has generated byte code for all supported
     languages, but that support is in flux at this time.  A new effort to
     finish this work has begun.  To make this work usable, we need to enhance
     GDB to load the byte code dynamically.  We would also like support for
     compiling just a few selected functions in a file.	 Due to limited
     resources, the FSF cannot fund this.  Interested volunteers should
     contact `gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu'.

   * GCC   (For current status, *note GNU Software::.)

     New front ends for GCC are being developed for Pascal and Chill.  See the
     GNU Fortran and GNAT items in this article for news on those front ends.

   * GNAT: The GNU Ada Translator   *Not yet available from the FSF*

     A front end for much of Ada 95 (GNAT: The GNU Ada Translator) is
     available via anonymous FTP from `cs.nyu.edu' in `/pub/gnat'.  SGI and
     Digital have chosen GNU Ada as the Ada compiler for certain systems.
     News about GNAT is posted to the USENET newsgroup `comp.lang.ada'.

   * GNU Fortran   (For info on `f2c' & GCC, *note GNU Software::.)

     The GNU Fortran (`g77') front end is stable, but work is needed to bring
     its overall packaging, feature set, & performance up to the levels the
     Fortran community expects.	 Tasks to be done include: improving
     documentation & diagnostics; speeding up compilation, especially for
     large initialized data tables; implementing `INTEGER*2', `INTEGER*8', &
     similar features; allowing intrinsics in `PARAMETER' statements; &
     providing debug information on `COMMON' & `EQUIVALENCE' variables.	 We
     don't know when these things will be done, but hope some will be
     finished in the coming months.  You can speed progress by working on
     them or by offering funding.

     A mailing list exists for announcements about `g77'.  To subscribe, ask
     `info-gnu-fortran-request@prep.ai.mit.edu'.  To contact the developer of
     `g77' or get current status, write or finger `fortran@gnu.ai.mit.edu'.

   * Ghostscript   (For current status, *note GNU Software::.)

     Ghostscript 3.0 will be distributed by the FSF soon.  It will implement
     nearly the full Postscript Level 2 language except for LZW compression,
     which can't be freely implemented because of software patents.
     (Prohibitions on programming like this are what the League for
     Programming Freedom is fighting.  *Note What Is the LPF::, for details.)

   * `gmp'   (For current status, *note GNU Software::.)

     The next version of the GNU `mp' library, 2.0, will have arbitrary
     precision floating point arithmetic, and expanded support for integer and
     rational number arithmetic.  `gmp' 2.0 is up to 4 times faster than
     previous versions.	 In particular, the speed of multiplication, division,
     and GCD has improved.

   * Smalltalk	 (For current status, *note GNU Software::.)

     The next release, version 1.2, will use Autoconf.	It will have
     substantial performance improvements & memory requirement reductions,
     more control over memory allocation, ability to use the Smalltalk
     interpreter as a C callable library, better X Window System interfaces,
     ability to represent and manipulate C data structures in Smalltalk,
     conditional compilation facilities, large integer support, an advanced
     GUI-based class browsing system, better TCP/IP interfaces, exception
     support, weak references, & finalization support.	It will run on UNIX,
     DOS, & Windows NT.

   * The Dictionary Project

     The FSF has a copy of the unabridged `Century Dictionary', now in the
     public domain, and we are planning to put it online.  We tried OCR, but
     it wasn't reliable enough.

     Russell Nelson is coordinating the project.  Volunteers have entered
     close to fifty pages so far, but the project needs more help; to
     volunteer, send mail to `dictionary@gnu.ai.mit.edu' or contact the FSF.

GNU Software

All our software is available via FTP; see *Note How to Get GNU Software::.
We also offer software on various media and printed documentation:

   * *Note CD-ROMs::.

   * *Note Tapes::.

   * *Note MS-DOS Diskettes::.

   * *Note Documentation::, which includes manuals and reference cards.

In these articles describing the contents of each medium, the version number
listed after each program name was current when we published this Bulletin.
When you order a distribution tape, diskette, or newer CD-ROM, some of the
programs may be newer and therefore the version number higher.	See the *note
Free Software Foundation Order Form::., for ordering information.

Some of the contents of our tape and FTP distributions are compressed.	We
have software on our tapes and FTP sites to uncompress these files.  Due to
patent troubles with `compress', we use another compression program, `gzip'.
(Such prohibitions on software development are fought by the League for
Programming Freedom; *note What Is the LPF::., for details.)

GNU `make' is on several of our tapes because some system vendors supply no
`make' utility at all and some native `make' programs lack the `VPATH'
feature essential for using the GNU configure system to its full extent.  The
GNU `make' sources have a shell script to build `make' itself on such systems.

We welcome all bug reports and enhancements sent to the appropriate
electronic mailing list (*note Free Software Support::.).

Configuring GNU Software

We are using, Autoconf, a uniform scheme for configuring GNU software
packages in order to compile them (see "Autoconf" below, in this article).
The goal is to have all GNU software support the same alternatives for naming
machine and system types.

Ultimately, it will be possible to configure and build the entire system all
at once, eliminating the need to configure each individual package separately.

You can also specify both the host and target system to build
cross-compilation tools.  Most GNU programs now use Autoconf-generated
configure scripts.

GNU Software currently available

For future programs and features, see *Note Forthcoming GNUs::.

Key to cross reference:

	  December 1994 Binaries CD-ROM

	  Djgpp Diskettes

	  MS-DOS Book with CD-ROM

	  Emacs Diskettes

	  Languages Tape

	  4.4BSD-Lite Tape

	  Lisps/Emacs Tape

	  Scheme Tape

	  December 1995 Source CD-ROMs

	  Selected Utilities Diskettes

	  Utilities Tape

	  VMS Compiler Tape

	  VMS Emacs Tape

	  Windows Diskette

	  X11 Optional Tape

	  X11 Required Tape

[FSFman] shows that we sell a manual for that package.	[FSFrc] shows we sell
a reference card for that package.  To order them, see the *note Free
Software Foundation Order Form::..  *Note Documentation::, for more
information on the manuals.  Source code for each manual or reference card is
included with each package.

   * `acm'   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     `acm' is a LAN-oriented, multiplayer aerial combat simulation that runs
     under the X Window System.	 Players engage in air to air combat against
     one another using heat seeking missiles and cannons.  We are working on
     a more accurate simulation of real airplane flight characteristics.

   * apache   (SrcCD)

     Apache is an HTTP server designed as a plug-in replacement for version
     1.3 or 1.4 of the NCSA server.  It fixes numerous bugs in the NCSA
     server and includes many frequently requested new features, and has an
     API which allows it to be extended to meet users' needs more easily.

   * Autoconf	(SrcCD, UtilT)

     Autoconf produces shell scripts which automatically configure source code
     packages.	These scripts adapt the packages to many kinds of Unix-like
     systems without manual user intervention.	Autoconf creates a script for
     a package from a template file which lists the operating system features
     which the package can use, in the form of `m4' macro calls.  Autoconf
     requires GNU `m4' to operate, but the resulting configure scripts it
     generates do not.

   * BASH   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     GNU's shell, BASH (Bourne Again SHell), is compatible with the Unix `sh'
     and offers many extensions found in `csh' and `ksh'.  BASH has job
     control, `csh'-style command history, command-line editing (with Emacs
     and `vi' modes built-in, and the ability to rebind keys) via the
     `readline' library.  BASH conforms to the POSIX 1003.2-1992 standard.

   * `bc'   (DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)

     `bc' is an interactive algebraic language with arbitrary precision
     numbers.  GNU `bc' follows the POSIX 1003.2-1992 standard, with several
     extensions including multi-character variable names, an `else'
     statement, and full Boolean expressions.  The RPN calculator `dc' is now
     distributed as part of the same package, but GNU `bc' is not implemented
     as a `dc' preprocessor.

   * BFD   (BinCD, DjgpD, DosBC, LangT, SrcCD)

     The Binary File Descriptor library allows a program which operates on
     object files (e.g., `ld' or GDB) to support many different formats in a
     clean way.	 BFD provides a portable interface, so that only BFD needs to
     know the details of a particular format.  One result is that all
     programs using BFD will support formats such as a.out, COFF, and ELF.
     BFD comes with Texinfo source for a manual (not yet published on paper).

     At present, BFD is not distributed separately; it is included with
     packages that use it.

   * Binutils	(BinCD, DjgpD, DosBC, LangT, SrcCD; `gas' only on VMSCmpT)

     Binutils includes these programs: `ar', `c++filt', `demangle', `gas',
     `gprof', `ld', `nlmconv', `nm', `objcopy', `objdump', `ranlib', `size',
     `strings', & `strip'.

     Binutils version 2 uses the BFD library.  The GNU assembler, `gas',
     supports the a29k, Alpha, H8/300, H8/500, HP-PA, i386, i960, m68k, m88k,
     MIPS, NS32K, SH, SPARC, Tahoe, Vax and Z8000 CPUs, and attempts to be
     compatible with many other assemblers for UNIX and embedded systems.  It
     can produce mixed C-and-assembly listings, and includes a macro facility
     similar to that in some other assemblers.	GNU's linker `ld' emits
     source-line numbered error messages for multiply-defined symbols and
     undefined references, and interprets a superset of AT&T's Linker Command
     Language, which gives control over where segments are placed in memory.
     `nlmconv' converts object files into Novell NetWare Loadable Modules.
     `objdump' can disassemble code for most of the CPUs listed above, and
     can display other data (e.g., symbols and relocations) from any file
     format read by BFD.

   * Bison   (BinCD,DjgpD,DosBC,LangT,SrcCD,VMSCmpT)[FSFman,FSFrc]

     Bison is an upwardly compatible replacement for the parser generator
     `yacc'.  Texinfo source for the `Bison Manual' and reference card are
     included.	*Note Documentation::.

     A recent policy change allows non-free programs to use Bison-generated
     parsers.  *Note Conditions for Using Bison::.

   * C Library	 (BinCD, LangT, SrcCD) [FSFman]

     The GNU C library supports ANSI C-1989, POSIX 1003.1-1990 and most of the
     functions in POSIX 1003.2-1992.  It is upwardly compatible with 4.4BSD
     and includes many System V functions, plus GNU extensions.

     The C Library performs many functions of the Unix system calls in the
     GNU/Hurd.	Mike Haertel has written a fast `malloc' which wastes less
     memory than the old GNU version.  The GNU regular-expression functions
     (`regex' and `rx') now nearly conform to the POSIX 1003.2 standard.

     GNU `stdio' lets you define new kinds of streams, just by writing a few
     C functions.  The `fmemopen' function uses this to open a stream on a
     string, which can grow as necessary.  You can define your own `printf'
     formats to use a C function you have written.  For example, you can
     safely use format strings from user input to implement a `printf'-like
     function for another programming language.	 Extended `getopt' functions
     are already used to parse options, including long options, in many GNU

     The C Library runs on Sun-3 (SunOS 4.1), Sun-4 (SunOS 4.1 or Solaris 2),
     HP 9000/300 (4.3BSD), SONY News 800 (NewsOS 3 or 4), MIPS DECstation
     (Ultrix 4), DEC Alpha (OSF/1), i386/i486/Pentium (System V, SVR4, BSD,
     SCO 3.2, & SCO ODT 2.0), Sequent Symmetry i386 (Dynix 3), & SGI (Irix
     4).  *Note Forthcoming GNUs::.  Texinfo source for the
     `GNU C Library Reference Manual' is included (*note Documentation::..

   * C++ Library   (BinCD, DjgpD, DosBC, LangT, SrcCD)

     The GNU C++ library (libg++) contains an extensive collection of C++
     "forest" classes, an IOStream library for input/output routines, and
     support tools for use with G++.  Supported classes include: Obstacks,
     multiple-precision Integers and Rationals, Complex numbers, arbitrary
     length Strings, BitSets, and BitStrings.

     The distribution also includes the libstdc++ library.  This implements
     library facilities defined by the forthcoming ANSI/ISO C++ standard,
     including a port of the Standard Template Library.

   * Calc   (DosBC, LspEmcT, SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc]

     Calc (written by Dave Gillespie in Emacs Lisp) is an extensible, advanced
     desk calculator & mathematical tool that runs as part of GNU Emacs.  You
     can use Calc just as a simple four-function calculator, but it has many
     more features including: choice of algebraic or RPN (stack-based) entry;
     logarithmic, trigonometric, & financial functions; arbitrary precision;
     complex numbers; vectors; matrices; dates; times; infinities; sets;
     algebraic simplification; differentiation & integration.  It outputs to
     `gnuplot', & comes with source for a manual & reference card (*note

   * `cfengine'	  (SrcCD, UtilT)

     `cfengine' is used for maintaining site-wide configuration of a
     heterogeneous Unix network using a simple high level language.  Its
     appearance is similar to `rdist', but also allows many more operations
     to be performed automatically.  See Mark Burgess, "A Site Configuration
     Engine", `Computing Systems', Vol. 8, No. 3 (ask `office@usenix.org' how
     to get a copy).

   * Chess   (SrcCD, UtilT, WdwsD)

     GNU Chess enables most modern computers to play a full game of chess.  It
     supports a plain terminal interface, a curses interface, and a spiffy X
     Window interface via `xboard'.

     Improvements this past year include fixes to the game analyzer, book, &
     hash table; smartening up draw and mate; improved thinking on opponent's
     time; Autoconf installation; a makefile for Windows NT compilation;
     forward pruning; unlimited quiescence captures; improved evaluation;
     improved null & time control logic; & repetition-detection.

     GNU Chess was originated by Stuart Cracraft.  Improvements & rewrites are
     from John Stanback, Cha Kong Sian, Mike McGann, and many others.

     Send bugs to `bug-gnu-chess@prep.ai.mit.edu' & general comments to

   * CLISP   (LspEmcT, SrcCD)

     CLISP is a Common Lisp implementation by Bruno Haible and Michael Stoll.
     It mostly supports the Lisp described by `Common LISP: The Language (2nd
     edition)' and the ANSI Common Lisp standard.  CLISP includes an
     interpreter, a byte-compiler, a large subset of CLOS, a foreign language
     interface, and, for some machines, a screen editor.  The user interface
     language (English, German, French) is choosable at run time.  Major
     packages that run in CLISP include CLX & Garnet.  CLISP needs only 2 MB
     of memory & runs on many microcomputers (including MS-DOS systems, OS/2,
     Windows NT, Amiga 500-4000, Acorn RISC PC) & Unix-like systems
     (GNU/Linux, Sun4, SVR4, SGI, HP-UX, DEC Alpha, NeXTStep, & others).

   * Common Lisp   **Note Forthcoming GNUs::*	(LspEmcT, SrcCD)

     GNU Common Lisp (GCL, formerly known as Kyoto Common Lisp) is a compiler
     & interpreter for Common Lisp.  GCL is very portable & extremely
     efficient on a wide class of applications, & compares favorably in
     performance with commercial Lisps on several large theorem-prover &
     symbolic algebra systems.	GCL supports the CLtL1 specification but is
     moving towards the proposed ANSI standard.

     GCL compiles to C & then uses the native optimizing C compiler (e.g.,
     GCC).  A function with a fixed number of args & one value turns into a C
     function of the same number of args, returning one value--so GCL is
     maximally efficient on such calls.	 Its conservative garbage collector
     gives great freedom to the C compiler to put Lisp values in registers.
     It has a source level Lisp debugger for interpreted code & displays
     source code in an Emacs window.  Its profiler (based on the C profiling
     tools) counts function calls & the time spent in each function.

     There is now a built-in interface to the Tk widget system.	 It runs in a
     separate process, so users may monitor progress on Lisp computations or
     interact with running computations via a windowing interface.

     There is also an Xlib interface via C (xgcl-2).  CLX runs with GCL, as
     does PCL (see "PCL" later in this article).  *Note Forthcoming GNUs::,
     for plans regarding GCL or for recent developments.

     GCL version 2.2 is released under the GNU Library General Public License.

   * CLX   (LspEmcT, SrcCD)

     CLX is an X Window interface library for GCL.

   * `cpio'   (DosBC, SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)

     `cpio' is an archive program with all the features of SVR4 `cpio',
     including support for the final POSIX 1003.1 `ustar' standard.  `mt', a
     program to position magnetic tapes, is included with `cpio'.

   * CVS   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     CVS, the Concurrent Version System, manages software revision & release
     control at a multi-developer, multi-directory, multi-group site.  It
     works best with RCS versions 4 and above, but will parse older RCS
     formats, losing some of CVS's fancier features.  (See Berliner, Brian,
     "CVS-II: Parallelizing Software Development," `Proceedings of the Winter
     1990 USENIX Association Conference'; ask `office@usenix.org' how to get
     a copy.)

   * DejaGnu   (LangT, SrcCD)

     DejaGnu is a framework to test programs with a single front end for all
     tests.  The framework's flexibility & consistency makes it easy to write

     DejaGnu comes with `expect', which runs scripts to conduct dialogs with

   * Diffutils	 (DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)

     GNU `diff' compares files showing line-by-line changes in several
     flexible formats.	It is much faster than traditional Unix versions.  The
     Diffutils package contains `diff', `diff3', `sdiff', & `cmp'.  Recent
     improvements include more consistent handling of character sets and a
     new `diff' option to do all input/output in binary; this is useful on
     some non-POSIX hosts.  Plans for the Diffutils package include support
     for internationalization (e.g., error messages in Chinese) and for some
     non-Unix PC environments.

   * DJGPP   (BinCD, DjgpD, DosBC)

     DJ Delorie has ported GCC/G++ (see "GCC" in this article) to i386s
     running MS-DOS.  DJGPP has a 32-bit i386 DOS extender with a symbolic
     debugger; development libraries; & ports of Bison, `flex', & Binutils.
     Full source code is provided.  It needs at least 5MB of hard disk space
     to install & 512K of RAM to use.  It supports SVGA (up to 1024x768), XMS
     & VDISK memory allocation, `himem.sys', VCPI (e.g., QEMM, DESQview, &
     386MAX), & DPMI (e.g., Windows 3.x, OS/2, QEMM, & QDPMI).

     The FSF offers it on the *Note Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM::, and on
     the *Note DJGPP Diskettes::.  FTP from `oak.oakland.edu' in
     `/simtel/vendors/djgpp/' (or another SimTel mirror site).

     To join a DJGPP users mailing list, ask

   * `dld'   (LangT, SrcCD)

     `dld' is a dynamic linker written by W. Wilson Ho.	 Linking your program
     with the `dld' library allows you to dynamically load object files into
     the running binary.  Currently supported are VAX (Ultrix), Sun 3 (SunOS
     3.4 & 4.0), SPARC (SunOS 4.0), Sequent Symmetry (Dynix), & Atari ST.

   * `doschk'	(DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)

     This program is a utility to help software developers ensure that their
     source file names are distinguishable on System V platforms with
     14-character filenames and on MS-DOS systems with 8+3 character

   * `ecc'   (LangT, SrcCD)

     `ecc' is a Reed-Solomon error correction checking program, which can
     correct three byte errors in a block of 255 bytes and detect more severe
     errors.  Contact `paulf@stanford.edu' for more information.

   * `ed'   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     `ed' is the standard text editor.	It is line-oriented and can be used
     interactively or in scripts.

   * Elib   (DosBC, LspEmcT, SrcCD)

     Elib is a small library of Emacs Lisp functions, including routines for
     using AVL trees and doubly-linked lists.

   * Elisp archive   (SrcCD)

     This is a snapshot of Ohio State's GNU Emacs Lisp FTP Archive.  FTP it
     from `archive.cis.ohio-state.edu' in `/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive'.

   * Emacs   **Note Forthcoming GNUs:: for future plans.*

     In 1975, Richard Stallman developed the first Emacs, an extensible,
     customizable real-time display editor & computing environment.  GNU Emacs
     is his second implementation.  It offers true Lisp--smoothly integrated
     into the editor--for writing extensions & provides an interface to the X
     Window System.  It runs on Unix, MS-DOS, & Windows NT.  In addition to
     its powerful native command set, Emacs has extensions which emulate the
     editors vi & EDT (Digital's VMS editor).  Emacs has many other features
     which make it a full computing support environment.  Source for the `GNU
     Emacs Manual' & a reference card comes with the software.	Sources for
     the `GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual' & `Programming in Emacs Lisp: An
     Introduction' are distributed in separate packages.  *Note

   * Emacs 18	(LspEmcT, SrcCD, VMSEmcsT) [FSFrc]

     Emacs 18.59 is the last release of version 18 from the FSF.  We no longer
     maintain it.  It supports these Unix systems that Emacs 19 doesn't
     support (please help port Emacs 19 to these systems): Alliant FX/80,
     Altos 3068, Amdahl (UTS), AT&T (3Bs & 7300 PC), CCI 5/32 & 6/32,
     Celerity, Digital (VAX VMS), Dual, Encore (APC, DPC, & XPC), HLH Orion
     (original & 1/05), ISI (Optimum V, 80386), Masscomp, NCR Tower 32 (SVR2
     & SVR3), Nixdorf Targon 31, Nu (TI & LMI), pfa50, Plexus, Prime EXL,
     Stride (system rel. 2), Tahoe, Tandem Integrity S2, Tektronix 16000,
     Triton 88, Ustation E30 (SS5E), Whitechapel (MG1), & Wicat.

   * Emacs 19	(DosBC, EmcsD, LspEmcT, SrcCD) [FSFman(s), FSFrc]

     Emacs 19 works with character-only terminals & with the X Window System
     (with or without an X toolkit).  New features in Emacs 19 include:
     multiple X windows ("frames" to Emacs), with a separate X window for the
     minibuffer or a minibuffer attached to each X window; property lists
     associated with regions of text in a buffer; multiple fonts & colors
     defined by those properties; simplified/improved processing of function
     keys, mouse clicks, and mouse movement; X selection processing,
     including clipboard selections; hooks to be run if the point or mouse
     moves outside a certain range; menu bars and popup menus defined by
     keymaps; scrollbars; before- and after-change hooks; a source-level
     debugger for Emacs Lisp programs; floating point numbers; improved
     buffer allocation, including returning storage to the system when a
     buffer is killed; interfacing with the X resource manager; many updated
     libraries; integrated support for version control systems (RCS, CVS, &
     SCCS); Autoconf based configuration; and support for European character

     Recent features include the ability to open frames on more than one X
     display from a single Emacs job, operation on MS-DOS, MS Windows, and
     Windows NT, displaying multiple views of an outline at the same time,
     support for the Athena & Motif widgets, version control support for CVS
     and for multiple branches, text properties for formatting text, commands
     to edit text properties and save them in files, and GNU-standard
     long-named command line options.

     Emacs 19.30 works on: Acorn RISC (RISCiX); Alliant FX/2800 (BSD); Alpha
     (OSF/1); Apollo (DomainOS); Bull DPX/2 2nn & 3nn (SysV.3) & sps7
     (SysV.2); Clipper; Convex (BSD); Cubix QBx (SysV); Data General Aviion
     (DGUX); DEC MIPS (Ultrix 4.2, OSF/1, not VMS); Elxsi 6400 (SysV); Gould
     Power Node & NP1 (4.2 & 4.3BSD); Harris Night Hawk 1200, 3000, 4000 &
     5000 (cxux); Honeywell XPS100 (SysV); HP 9000 series 200, 300, 700, 800
     (but not 500) (4.3BSD; HP-UX 7, 8, 9); Intel i386/i486/Pentium
     (GNU/Linux, 386BSD, AIX, BSDI/386, FreeBSD, Esix, ISC, MS-DOS (*note
     MS-DOS Diskettes::., & *Note MS-DOS Book with CD-ROM::), NetBSD,
     SCO3.2v4, Solaris, SysV, Xenix, WindowsNT); IBM RS/6000 (AIX 3.2) &
     RT/PC (AIX, BSD); Motorola Delta 147 & 187 (SysV.3, SysV.4, m88kbcs);
     National Semiconductor 32K (Genix); NeXT (BSD, Mach 2 w/ NeXTStep 3.0);
     Paragon (OSF/1); Prime EXL (SysV); Pyramid (BSD); Sequent Symmetry (BSD,
     ptx); Siemens RM400 & RM600 (SysV); SGI Iris 4D (Irix 4.x & 5.x); Sony
     News/RISC (NewsOS); Stardent i860 (SysV); Sun 3 & 4, SPARC 1, 1+, 2, 10,
     Classic (SunOS 4.0, 4.1, Solaris 2.0-2.3); Tadpole 68k (SysV); Tektronix
     XD88 (SysV.3) & 4300 (BSD); & Titan P2 & P3 (SysV).

     Other configurations supported by Emacs 18 should work with few changes
     in Emacs 19; as users tell us more about their experiences with different
     systems, we will augment the list.	 Also see *Note Forthcoming GNUs::.

   * `es'   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     `es' is an extensible shell (based on `rc') with first class functions,
     lexical scope, exceptions and rich return values (i.e., functions can
     return values other than just numbers).  `es''s extensibility comes from
     the ability to modify and extend the shell's built-in services, such as
     path searching and redirection.  Like `rc', it is great for both
     interactive use and scripting, particularly since its quoting rules are
     much less baroque than the C and Bourne shells.

   * `f2c'   (LangT, SrcCD)

     `f2c' converts Fortran-77 source into C or C++, which can be compiled
     with GCC or G++.  Get bug fixes by FTP from site `netlib.att.com' or by
     email from `netlib@research.att.com'.  See the file
     `/netlib/f2c/readme.Z' for a summary.  Also see the GNU Fortran item
     later in this article, and in *Note Forthcoming GNUs::.

   * `ffcall'	(SrcCD)

     `ffcall' is a C library for implementing foreign function calls in
     embedded interpreters by Bill Triggs and Bruno Haible.  It allows C
     functions with arbitrary argument lists and return types to be called or
     emulated (callbacks).

   * Fileutils	 (DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)

     The Fileutils work on files: `chgrp', `chmod', `chown', `cp', `dd', `df',
     `dir', `du', `install', `ln', `ls', `mkdir', `mkfifo', `mknod', `mv',
     `rm', `rmdir', `sync', `touch', & `vdir'.

   * Findutils	 (DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)

     `find' is frequently used both interactively and in shell scripts to
     find files which match certain criteria and perform arbitrary operations
     on them.  Also included are `locate', which scans a database for file
     names that match a pattern, and `xargs', which applies a command to a
     list of files.

   * Finger   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     GNU Finger has more features than other finger programs.  For sites with
     many hosts, a single host may be designated as the finger "server" host
     and other hosts at that site configured as finger "clients".  The server
     host collects information about who is logged in on the clients.  To
     finger a user at a GNU Finger site, a query to any of its client hosts
     gets useful information.  GNU Finger supports many customization
     features, including user output filters and site programmable output for
     special target names.

   * `flex'   (BinCD, DjgpD, DosBC, LangT, SrcCD, UtilD) [FSFman, FSFrc]

     `flex' is a replacement for the `lex' scanner generator.  `flex' was
     written by Vern Paxson of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and generates
     far more efficient scanners than `lex' does.  Sources for the `Flex
     Manual' and reference card are included (*note Documentation::.).

   * Fortran (`g77')   **Note Forthcoming GNUs::*   (LangT, SrcCD)

     GNU Fortran (`g77'), developed by Craig Burley, is available for public
     beta testing on the Internet.  For now, `g77' produces code that is
     mostly object-compatible with `f2c' & uses the same run-time library

   * Fontutils	 (SrcCD, UtilT)

     The Fontutils convert between font formats, create fonts for use with
     Ghostscript or TeX (starting with a scanned type image & converting the
     bitmaps to outlines), et al.  It includes: `bpltobzr', `bzrto',
     `charspace', `fontconvert', `gsrenderfont', `imageto', `imgrotate',
     `limn', & `xbfe'.

   * GAWK   (DosBC, LangT, SrcCD) [FSFman]

     GAWK is upwardly compatible with the latest POSIX specification of
     `awk'.  It also provides several useful extensions not found in other
     `awk' implementations.  Texinfo source for the `GAWK Manual' comes with
     the software  (*note Documentation::.).

   * GCC   (BinCD, DjgpD, DosBC, LangT, SrcCD, VMSCmpT) [FSFman]

     Version 2 of the GNU C Compiler supports the languages C, C++, and
     Objective-C; the source file name suffix or a compiler option selects
     the language.  Objective-C support was donated by NeXT.  The runtime
     support needed to run Objective-C programs is now distributed with GCC
     (this does not include any Objective-C classes aside from `object', but
     see "GNUStep" in *Note Forthcoming GNUs::).  As much as possible, G++ is
     kept compatible with the evolving draft ANSI standard, but not with
     `cfront' (AT&T's compiler), which has been diverging from ANSI.

     The GNU C Compiler is a fairly portable optimizing compiler which
     performs automatic register allocation, common sub-expression
     elimination, invariant code motion from loops, induction variable
     optimizations, constant propagation and copy propagation, delayed
     popping of function call arguments, tail recursion elimination,
     integration of inline functions and frame pointer elimination,
     instruction scheduling, loop unrolling, filling of delay slots, leaf
     function optimization, optimized multiplication by constants, a certain
     amount of common subexpression elimination (CSE) between basic blocks
     (though not all of the supported machine descriptions provide for
     scheduling or delay slots), a feature for assigning attributes to
     instructions, and many local optimizations that are automatically
     deduced from the machine description.

     GCC can open-code most arithmetic on 64-bit values (type `long long
     int').  It supports extended floating point (type `long double') on the
     68k; other machines will follow.

     GCC supports full ANSI C, traditional C, & GNU C extensions (including:
     nested functions support, nonlocal gotos, & taking the address of a

     GCC can generate a.out, COFF, ELF, & OSF-Rose files when used with a
     suitable assembler.  It can produce debugging information in these
     formats: BSD stabs, COFF, ECOFF, ECOFF with stabs, & DWARF.

     GCC generates code for many CPUs, including the a29k, Alpha  ARM  AT&T
     DSP1610 Clipper Convex cN Elxsi Fujitsu Gmicro i370, i860, i960,
     MIL-STD-1750a, MIPS, ns32k, PDP-11, Pyramid, ROMP, RS/6000, SH, SPUR,
     Tahoe, VAX, & we32k.  Position-independent code is generated for the
     Clipper, Hitachi H8/300, HP-PA (1.0 & 1.1), i386/i486/Pentium, m68k,
     m88k, SPARC, & SPARClite.

     Operating systems supported include: GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, ACIS, AIX, AOS,
     BSD, Clix, Concentrix, Ctix, DG/UX, Dynix, FreeBSD, Genix, HP-UX, Irix,
     ISC, Luna, LynxOS, Minix, NetBSD, NewsOS, NeXTStep, OS/2, OSF, OSF-Rose,
     RISCOS, SCO, Solaris 2, SunOS 4, System/370, SysV, Ultrix, Unos, VMS, &

     Using the configuration scheme for GCC, building a cross-compiler is as
     easy as building a native compiler.

     Version 1 of GCC, G++, & libg++ are no longer maintained.

     Texinfo source for the `Using and Porting GNU CC' manual, is included
     with GCC (*note Documentation::.).

     *Note Forthcoming GNUs::, for plans for later releases of GCC.

   * GDB   (BinCD, DjgpD, DosBC, LangT, SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc]

     GDB, the GNU DeBugger, is a source-level debugger for C, C++, & Fortran.

     GDB can debug both C and C++ programs, and will work with executables
     produced by many different compilers; however, C++ debugging will have
     some limitations if you do not use GCC.

     GDB has a command line user interface, and Emacs has a GDB mode.  Two X
     interfaces (not distributed or maintained by the FSF) are: `gdbtk' (FTP
     it from `ftp.cygnus.com' in directory `/pub/gdb'); and `xxgdb' (FTP it
     from `ftp.x.org' in directory `/contrib/utilities').

     Executable files and symbol tables are read via the BFD library, which
     allows a single copy of GDB to debug programs with multiple object file
     formats (e.g., a.out, COFF, ELF).	Other features include a rich command
     language, remote debugging over serial lines or TCP/IP, and watchpoints
     (breakpoints triggered when the value of an expression changes).

     GDB uses a standard remote interface to a simulator library which (so
     far) has simulators for the Hitachi H8/300, H8/500, Super-H, & Zilog

     GDB can perform cross-debugging.  To say that GDB "targets" a platform
     means it can perform native or cross-debugging for it.  To say that GDB
     can "host" a given platform means that it can be built on it, but cannot
     necessarily debug native programs.

     GDB can:

	* "target" & "host": Amiga 3000 (Amix), DEC Alpha (OSF/1), DECstation
	  3100 & 5000 (Ultrix), HP 9000/300 (BSD, HP-UX), HP 9000/700 (HP-UX
	  9, 10), i386 (GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, BSD, FreeBSD, LynxOS, NetBSD,
	  SCO), IBM RS/6000 (AIX, LynxOS), Motorola Delta m88k (System V,
	  CX/UX), PC532 (NetBSD), Motorola m68k MVME-167 (LynxOS), NCR 3000
	  (SVR4), SGI (Irix V3, V4, V5), SONY News (NewsOS 3.x), SPARC
	  (LynxOS, NetBSD, Solaris, & SunOS 4.1 ) Sun-3 (SunOS 4.1), &
	  Ultracomputer (a29k running Sym1).

	* "target", but not "host": AMD 29000 (COFF & a.out), Hitachi H8/300,
	  Hitachi SH, i386 (a.out, COFF, OS/9000), i960 (Nindy, VxWorks),
	  m68k/m68332 (a.out, COFF, VxWorks), MIPS (ELF, IDT ecoff), Fujitsu
	  SPARClite (a.out, COFF), & Z8000.

	* "host", but not "target": IBM RT/PC (AIX), HP/Apollo 68k (BSD), &
	  Apple Macintosh (MacOS).

     Sources for the manual, `Debugging with GDB', and a reference card are
     included (*note Documentation::.).

   * `gdbm'   (LangT, SrcCD, UtilD)

     `gdbm' is the GNU replacement for the traditional `dbm' and `ndbm'
     libraries.	 It implements a database using quick lookup by hashing.
     `gdbm' does not ordinarily make sparse files (unlike its Unix and BSD

   * `gettext'	 (LangT, SrcCD)

     The GNU `gettext' tool set contains everything maintainers need to
     internationalize a package for messages, tools that help translators
     localize messages to their native language, once a package has been
     internationalized.	 *Note Help the GNU Translation Project::.

   * Ghostscript   (DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)

     The GNU release of Ghostscript is an interpreter for the Postscript
     graphics language (*note Forthcoming GNUs::., for future plans).

     The current version of GNU Ghostscript is 2.6.2.  Features include the
     ability to use the fonts provided by the platform on which Ghostscript
     runs (X Window System & Microsoft (MS) Windows), resulting in much
     better-looking screen displays; improved text file printing (like
     `enscript'); a utility to extract the text from a Postscript language
     document; a much more reliable (and faster) MS Windows implementation;
     support for MS C/C++ 7.0; drivers for many new printers ( e.g. the
     SPARCprinter), & for TIFF/F (Fax) file format; many more Postscript Level
     2 facilities, including most of the color space facilities (but not
     patterns); & the ability to switch between Level 1 & Level 2
     dynamically.  Version 2.6.2 adds a LaserJet 4 driver & several important
     bug fixes to version 2.6.1.

     Ghostscript executes commands in the Postscript language by writing
     directly to a printer, drawing on an X window, or writing to files for
     printing later or manipulating with other graphics programs.

     Ghostscript includes a C-callable graphics library (for client programs
     that do not want to deal with the Postscript language).  It also supports
     i386/i486/Pentiums running MS-DOS with EGA, VGA or SuperVGA graphics (but
     please do *not* ask the FSF staff any questions about this; we do not
     use MS-DOS).

   * Ghostview	 (DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)

     Tim Theisen, `ghostview@cs.wisc.edu', created Ghostview, a previewer for
     multi-page files with an X Window interface.  Ghostview & Ghostscript
     work together; Ghostview creates a viewing window & Ghostscript draws in

   * GIT   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     GIT is a set of interactive tools: an extensible file system browser, an
     ASCII/hex file viewer, a process viewer/killer, & other related
     utilities & shell scripts.	 It can be used to increase the speed &
     efficiency of many daily tasks, such as copying & moving files &
     directories, invoking editors, compressing/uncompressing files, creating
     & expanding archives, compiling programs, sending mail, etc.  It looks
     nice, has colors (if the standard ANSI color sequences are supported), &
     is user-friendly.

   * `gmp'    **Note Forthcoming GNUs::*   (LangT, SrcCD)

     GNU `mp' is a library for arbitrary precision arithmetic on signed
     integers and rational numbers.  It has a rich set of functions with a
     regular interface.

   * GN	  (SrcCD)

     GN is a gopher/HTTP server.  It recognizes whether the request came from
     an HTTP (World Wide Web) or gopher client and responds accordingly.

   * Gnans    (SrcCD)

     Gnans is a program (and language) for the numerical study of
     deterministic and stochastic dynamical systems.  The dynamical systems
     may evolve in continuous or discrete time.	 Gnans has graphical &
     command line interfaces.

   * GNATS   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     GNATS (GNats: A Tracking System, not to be confused with GNAT, The GNU
     Ada Translator) is a bug-tracking system.	It is based upon the paradigm
     of a central site or organization which receives problem reports and
     negotiates their resolution by electronic mail.  Although it has been
     used primarily as a software bug-tracking system so far, it is
     sufficiently generalized that it could be used for handling system
     administration issues, project management, or any number of other

   * `gnuplot'	 (SrcCD, UtilT, WdwsD)

     `gnuplot' is an interactive program for plotting mathematical
     expressions and data.  It plots both curves (2 dimensions) & surfaces (3
     dimensions).  Curiously, it was neither written nor named for the GNU
     Project; the name is a coincidence.  Various GNU programs use `gnuplot'.

   * `gnuserv'	 (LspEmcT, SrcCD)

     `gnuserv' is a enhanced version of Emacs' `emacsclient' program.  It
     lets the user direct a running Emacs to edit files or evaluate arbitrary
     Emacs Lisp constructs from another process.

   * GnuGo   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     GnuGo plays the game of Go (Wei-Chi); version 1.2 was released with minor
     changes for portability,  but it is not yet very sophisticated.

   * `gperf'   (LangT, SrcCD)

     `gperf' generates perfect hash tables.  The C version is in package
     cperf.  The C++ version is in libg++.  Both produce hash functions in
     either C or C++.

   * Graphics	(SrcCD, UtilT)

     GNU Graphics produces x-y plots from ASCII or binary data.	 It outputs
     in Postscript, Tektronix 4010 compatible, and Unix device-independent
     "plot" formats.  It has a previewer for the X Window System.  Features
     include a `spline' interpolation program; examples of shell scripts
     using `graph' and `plot'; a statistics toolkit; and output in TekniCAD
     TDA and ln03 file formats.	 Email bugs or queries to Rich Murphey,

   * grep   (DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)

     This package has GNU `grep', `egrep', and `fgrep', which find lines that
     match entered patterns.  They are much faster than the traditional Unix

   * Groff   (DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)

     Groff is a document formatting system based on a device-independent
     version of `troff' & includes: `eqn', `nroff', `pic', `refer', `tbl',
     `troff'; the `man', `ms', & `mm' macros; & drivers for Postscript, TeX
     `dvi' format, and typewriter-like devices.	 Groff's `mm' macro package
     is almost compatible with the DWB `mm' macros with several extensions.
     Also included is a modified version of the Berkeley `me' macros and an
     enhanced version of the X11 `xditview' previewer.	A driver for the
     LaserJet 4 series of printers is currently in test.  Written in C++,
     these programs can be compiled with GNU C++ Version 2.5 or later.

     Groff users are encouraged to contribute enhancements.  Most needed are
     complete Texinfo documentation, a `grap' emulation (a `pic' preprocessor
     for typesetting graphs), a page-makeup postprocessor similar to `pm'
     (see `Computing Systems', Vol. 2, No. 2; ask `office@usenix.org' how to
     get a copy), and an ASCII output class for `pic' to integrate `pic' with
     Texinfo.  Questions and bug reports from users who have read the
     documentation provided with Groff can be sent to

   * `gzip'   (DjgpD, DosBC, LangT, LspEmcT, SrcCD, UtilT)

     `gzip' can expand LZW-compressed files but uses another, unpatented
     algorithm for compression which generally produces better results.	 It
     also expands files compressed with System V's `pack' program.

   * `hello'   (DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)

     The GNU `hello' program produces a familiar, friendly greeting.  It
     allows non-programmers to use a classic computer science tool which would
     otherwise be unavailable to them.	Because it is protected by the GNU
     General Public License, users are free to share and change it.  `hello'
     is also a good example of a program that meets the GNU coding standards.

     Like any truly useful program, `hello' contains a built-in mail reader.

   * `hp2xx'   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     GNU `hp2xx' reads HP-GL files, decomposes all drawing commands into
     elementary vectors, and converts them into a variety of vector and raster
     output formats.  It is also an HP-GL previewer.  Currently supported
     vector formats include encapsulated Postscript, Uniplex RGIP, Metafont,
     various special TeX-related formats, and simplified HP-GL (line drawing
     only) for imports.	 Raster formats supported include IMG, PBM, PCX, &
     HP-PCL (including Deskjet & DJ5xxC support).  Previewers work under X11
     (Unix), OS/2 (PM & full screen), & MS-DOS (SVGA, VGA, & HGC).

   * HylaFAX   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     HylaFAX (once named FlexFAX) is a facsimile system for Unix systems.  It
     supports sending, receiving, & polled retrieval of facsimile, as well as
     transparent shared data use of the modem.

     Details are available on the World Wide Web at:

   * Hyperbole	 (LspEmcT, SrcCD)

     Hyperbole, written by Bob Weiner in Emacs Lisp, is an open, efficient,
     programmable information management & hypertext system, intended for
     everyday work on any platform supported by Emacs.

   * `indent'	(DosBC, LangT, SrcCD, UtilD)

     GNU `indent' formats C source code into the GNU indentation style.	 It
     also has options to output BSD, K&R, or your own special style.  GNU
     `indent' is more robust & provides more functionality than other such
     programs, including handling C++ comments.	 It runs on a number of
     systems, including DOS & VMS.

     The next version will also format C++ source code.

   * Ispell   (DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)

     Ispell is an interactive spell checker that suggests "near misses" to
     replace unrecognized words.  System & user-maintained dictionaries for
     multiple languages can be used.  Standalone & Emacs interfaces are

     Previously, the FSF had its own version of Ispell ("Ispell 4.0"), but
     has dropped it for a parallel branch that has had more development
     ("Ispell 3.1").  (Ispell 3 was an earlier release by the original Ispell
     author, but others have since made it more sophisticated.)

   * JACAL   *Not available from the FSF except by FTP*

     JACAL is a symbolic mathematics system for the manipulation and
     simplification of algebraic equations and expressions.  New in JACAL is
     multivariate factoring from Michael Thomas `(mjt@octavia.anu.edu.au)'.
     See JACAL's documentation at `http://www-swiss.ai.mit.edu/~jaffer/'.

     JACAL is written in Scheme using the SLIB portable Scheme Library.	 It
     comes with SCM, an IEEE P1178 & R4RS compliant version of Scheme written
     in C.  SCM runs on Amiga, Atari-ST, MS-DOS, OS/2, NOS/VE, Unicos, VMS,
     Unix, & similar systems.

     The FSF is not distributing JACAL on any physical media.  To get an IBM
     PC floppy disk with the freely redistributable source & executable
     files, send $99.00 to:

	  Aubrey Jaffer
	  84 Pleasant Street
	  Wakefield, MA	  01880-1846

   * `less'   (DosBC, SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)

     `less' is a display paginator similar to `more' and `pg', but with
     various features (such as the ability to scroll backwards) that most
     pagers lack.

   * `m4'   (DosBC, SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)

     GNU `m4' is an implementation of the traditional Unix macro processor.
     It is mostly SVR4 compatible, although it has some extensions (e.g.,
     handling more than 9 positional parameters to macros).  `m4' also has
     built-in functions for including files, running shell commands, doing
     arithmetic, etc.

   * `make' (BinCD,DjgpD,DosBC,LangT,LspEmcT,SrcCD,UtilD,UtilT)[FSFman]

     GNU `make' supports POSIX 1003.2 and has all but a few obscure features
     of the BSD and System V versions of `make'.  GNU extensions include long
     options, parallel compilation, flexible implicit pattern rules,
     conditional execution, & powerful text manipulation functions.  Texinfo
     source for the `Make Manual' comes with the program (*note

   * MandelSpawn   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     A parallel Mandelbrot generation program for the X Window System.

   * Midnight Commander (`mc')	 (SrcCD, UtilT)

     The Midnight Commander is a user friendly and colorful Unix file manager
     and shell, useful to novice and guru alike.  It has a built-in virtual
     file system that allows the user to manipulate files inside tar files
     (both regular and compressed) or files on remote machines using the FTP

   * `mkisofs'	 (SrcCD, UtilT)

     `mkisofs' is a pre-mastering program to generate an ISO 9660 file system.
     It takes a snapshot of a directory tree, and makes a binary image which
     corresponds to an ISO 9660 file system when written to a block device.

     It can also generate the System Use Sharing Protocol records of the Rock
     Ridge Interchange Protocol (used to further describe the files in an ISO
     9660 file system to a Unix host; it provides information such as longer
     filenames, uid/gid, permissions, and device nodes).

     Also included is `cdwrite', which can take an image from `mkisofs' and
     write it to a Phillips CD recorder system attached to a GNU/Linux system.

   * mtools   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     mtools is a set of public domain programs to allow Unix systems to read,
     write, and manipulate files on an MS-DOS file system (usually a

   * MULE   (DosBC, EmcsD, LspEmcT, SrcCD)

     MULE is a MULtilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs.  MULE text buffers can
     contain a mix of characters from many languages including: Japanese,
     Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Thai, modern European languages (including
     Greek & Russian), Arabic, & Hebrew.  MULE also provides input methods
     for all of them.  MULE is being merged into GNU Emacs.  *Note GNU &
     Other Free Software in Japan::, for more information about MULE.

   * `ncurses'	 (LangT, SrcCD)

     `ncurses' is an implementation of the Unix `curses' library for
     developing screen based programs that are terminal independent.

   * NetHack   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     NetHack is a Rogue-like adventure game supporting character & X displays.

   * NIH Class Library	 (LangT, SrcCD)

     The NIH Class Library (once known as "OOPS", Object-Oriented Program
     Support) is a portable collection of C++ classes (similar to those in
     Smalltalk-80) written in C++ by Keith Gorlen of the National Institutes
     of Health (NIH).

   * `nvi'   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     `nvi' is a free implementation of the `vi'/`ex' Unix editor.  It has
     most of the functionality of the original `vi'/`ex', except "open" mode
     & the `lisp' option, which will be added.	Enhancements over `vi'/`ex'
     include split screens with multiple buffers, handling 8-bit data,
     infinite file & line lengths, tag stacks, infinite undo, & extended
     regular expressions.  It runs under GNU/Linux, BSD, NetBSD, FreeBSD,
     BSDI, AIX, HP-UX, DGUX, IRIX, PSF, PTX, Solaris, SunOS, Ultrix, and
     Unixware, & should port easily to other systems.

   * Oaklisp	(SrcCD)

     Oaklisp is a fast, portable, object-oriented Scheme with first class

   * Objective-C Library   **Note Forthcoming GNUs::*	(LangT, SrcCD)

     Our Objective-C Class Library (`libobjects') has general-purpose,
     non-graphical Objective-C objects written by Andrew McCallum & other
     volunteers.  It includes collection classes for using groups of objects
     & C types, I/O streams, coders for formatting objects & C types to
     streams, ports for network packet transmission, distributed objects
     (remote object messaging), string classes, exceptions, pseudo-random
     number generators, & time handling facilities.  It also includes the
     foundation classes for the GNUStep project; over 70 of them have already
     been implemented.	The library is known to work on i386/i486/Pentiums,
     m68k, SPARC, MIPS, HPPA, & RS/6000.  Send queries & bug reports to

   * OBST   (LangT, SrcCD)

     OBST is a persistent object management system with bindings to C++.
     OBST supports incremental loading of methods.  Its graphical tools
     require the X Window System.  It features a hands-on tutorial including
     sample programs.  It compiles with G++, and should install easily on
     most Unix platforms.

   * Octave   (LangT, SrcCD)

     Octave is a high-level language similar to MATLAB, primarily intended
     for numerical computations.  It has a convenient command line interface
     for solving linear & nonlinear problems numerically.

     Octave does arithmetic for real and complex scalars and matrices, solves
     sets of nonlinear algebraic equations, integrates systems of ordinary
     differential & differential-algebraic equations, and integrates
     functions over finite & infinite intervals.  Two- & three-dimensional
     plotting is available using `gnuplot'.

     Send queries and bug reports to: `bug-octave@bevo.che.wisc.edu'.

     Texinfo source is included for a 220+ page Octave manual, not yet
     published by the FSF.

   * Oleo   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     Oleo is a spreadsheet program (better for you than the more expensive
     spreadsheets).  It supports the X Window System and character-based
     terminals, and can output Embedded Postscript renditions of spreadsheets.
     Keybindings should be familiar to Emacs users and are configurable.
     Oleo supports multiple variable-width fonts when used under the X Window
     System or outputting to Postscript devices.

   * `p2c'   (LangT, SrcCD)

     `p2c' is Dave Gillespie's Pascal-to-C translator.	It inputs many
     different dialects (HP, ISO, Turbo, VAX, et al.) and generates readable,
     maintainable, portable C.

   * `patch'   (DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)

     `patch' is our version of Larry Wall's program to take `diff''s output
     and apply those differences to an original file to generate the modified

   * PCL   (LspEmcT, SrcCD)

     PCL is a free implementation of a large subset of CLOS, the Common Lisp
     Object System.  It runs under both GCL and CLISP, mentioned above.

   * `perl'   (DosBC, LangT, SrcCD)

     Larry Wall's `perl' combines the features and capabilities of `sed',
     `awk', `sh', and C.  It also provides interfaces to the Unix system
     calls and many C library routines.

   * `pine'   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     `pine' is a friendly menu-driven electronic mail manager and user
     interface .

   * `ptx'    **Note Forthcoming GNUs::*   (SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)

     GNU `ptx' is our version of the traditional permuted index generator.
     It handles multiple input files at once, produces TeX compatible output,
     and generates readable "KWIC" (KeyWords In Context) indexes without
     using `nroff'.

     It does not yet handle input files that do not fit in memory all at once.

   * `rc'   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     `rc' is a shell that features a C-like syntax (much more so than `csh')
     and far cleaner quoting rules than the C or Bourne shells.	 It's
     intended to be used interactively, but is also great for writing
     scripts.  It inspired the shell `es'.

   * RCS   (SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)

     RCS, the Revision Control System, is used for version control &
     management of software projects.  Used with GNU `diff', RCS can handle
     binary files (executables, object files, 8-bit data, etc).	 RCS now
     conforms to GNU configuration standards and to POSIX 1003.1b-1993.	 Also
     see the CVS item above.

   * `recode'	 **Note Forthcoming GNUs::*   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     GNU `recode' converts files between character sets and usages.  When
     exact transliterations are not possible, it may delete the offending
     characters or fall back on approximations.	 This program recognizes or
     outputs nearly 150 different character sets and is able to transliterate
     files between almost any pair.  Most RFC 1345 character sets are

   * `regex'   (LangT, SrcCD)

     The GNU regular expression library supports POSIX.2, except for
     internationalization features.  It is included in many GNU programs which
     do regular expression matching & is available separately.	An alternate
     regular expression package, `rx', is faster than `regex' in most cases &
     will replace `regex' over time.

   * `rx'   (LangT, SrcCD)

     Tom Lord has written `rx', a new regular expression library which is
     faster than the older GNU `regex' library.	 It is now being distributed
     with `sed' and `tar'.  `rx' will be used in the next releases of `m4'
     and `ptx'.

   * SAOimage	(SrcCD, UtilT)

     SAOimage is an X-based astronomical image viewer.	It reads data images
     and displays them with a pseudocolor colormap.  There is full interactive
     control of the colormap, reading, and writing of colormaps, etc.

   * Scheme   *For more information, see *Note Scheme Tape::*	(SrcCD, SchmT)

   * `screen'	(SrcCD, UtilT)

     `screen' is a terminal multiplexer that runs several separate "screens"
     (ttys) on a single character-based terminal.  Each virtual terminal
     emulates a DEC VT100 plus several ISO 2022 and ISO 6429 (ECMA 48, ANSI
     X3.64) functions, including color.	 Arbitrary keyboard input translation
     is also supported.	 `screen' sessions can be detached and resumed later
     on a different terminal type.  Output in detached sessions is saved for
     later viewing.

   * `sed'   (DjgpD, DosBC, SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)

     `sed' is a stream-oriented version of `ed'.  It comes with the `rx'

   * Sharutils	 (SrcCD, UtilT)

     `shar' makes so-called shell archives out of many files, preparing them
     for transmission by electronic mail services; `unshar' helps unpack
     these shell archives after reception.  `uuencode' and `uudecode' are
     POSIX compliant implementations of a pair of programs to transform files
     into a format that can be safely transmitted across a 7-bit ASCII link.

   * Shellutils	  (DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)

     They are: `basename', `date', `dirname', `echo', `env', `expr', `false',
     `groups', `hostname', `id', `logname', `nice', `nohup', `pathchk',
     `printenv', `printf', `pwd', `sleep', `stty', `su', `tee', `test',
     `true', `tty', `uname', `users', `who', `whoami', & `yes'.

   * Shogi   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     Shogi is a Japanese game similar to Chess; a major difference is that
     captured pieces can be returned into play.

     GNU Shogi is a variant of GNU Chess; it implements the same features &
     similar heuristics.  As a new feature, sequences of partial board
     patterns can be introduced to help the program play toward specific
     opening patterns.	It has both character and X display interfaces.

     It is primarily supported by Matthias Mutz on behalf of the FSF.

   * SIPP    (SrcCD)

     SIPP is a library for creating photorealistic renderings of 3D scenes.
     A scene is built up of objects which can be transformed with rotation,
     translation, and scaling.	The objects form hierarchies where each object
     can have arbitrarily many subobjects and subsurfaces.  A surface is a
     number of connected polygons which are rendered with either Phong,
     Gouraud, or flat shading.	The library supports programmable shaders and
     texture mapping with textures in up to 3 dimensions and automatic
     interpolation of texture coordinates.  A scene can be illuminated by an
     arbitrary number of light sources.	 The lights from some of them are
     capable of casting shadows of objects.

   * Smalltalk	 *Also see *Note Forthcoming GNUs::*   (LangT,SrcCD)

     GNU Smalltalk is an interpreted object-oriented programming language
     system written in highly portable C.  It has been ported to many Unix,
     DOS, & other OSes.	 Features include a binary image save capability, the
     ability to call user-written C code with parameters, an Emacs editing
     mode, a version of the X protocol invocable from Smalltalk, optional
     byte-code compilation and/or execution tracing, & automatically loaded
     per-user initialization files.  It implements all of the classes &
     protocol in the book "Smalltalk-80: The Language", except for the
     graphic user interface (GUI) related classes.

   * SNePS    (SrcCD)

     SNePS is the Semantic Network Processing System.  It is an
     implementation of a fully intensional theory of propositional knowledge
     representation and reasoning.  SNePS runs under CLISP or GCL.

   * Spinner   (SrcCD)

     Spinner is a modularized, object oriented, non-forking World Wide Web
     server with high performance and throughput.

   * Superopt	(LangT, SrcCD)

     Superopt is a function sequence generator that uses an exhaustive
     generate-and-test approach to find the shortest instruction sequence for
     a given function.	You provide a function as input, a CPU to generate
     code for, and how many instructions you want.  Its use in GCC is
     described in the `ACM SIGPLAN PLDI'92 Proceedings'.  It supports: SPARC,
     m68k, m68020, m88k, IBM POWER and PowerPC, AMD 29k, Intel x86 and 960,
     Pyramid, DEC Alpha, Hitachi SH, & HP-PA.

   * `tar'   (DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)

     GNU `tar' includes multi-volume support, the ability to archive sparse
     files, compression/decompression, remote archives, and special features
     that allow `tar' to be used for incremental and full backups.  GNU `tar'
     uses an early draft of the POSIX 1003.1 `ustar' format which is
     different from the final version.	This will be corrected in the future.

   * Termcap Library   (SrcCD, UtilT) [FSFman]

     The GNU Termcap library is a drop-in replacement for `libtermcap.a' on
     any system.  It does not place an arbitrary limit on the size of Termcap
     entries, unlike most other Termcap libraries.  Included is source for the
     `Termcap Manual' in Texinfo format (*note Documentation::.).

   * Termutils	 (SrcCD, UtilT)

     The Termutils package contains programs for controlling terminals.
     `tput' is a portable way for shell scripts to use special terminal
     capabilities.  `tabs' is a program to set hardware terminal tab settings.

   * TeX   (DosBC, SrcCD)

     TeX is a document formatting system that handles complicated
     typesetting, including mathematics.  It is GNU's standard text formatter.

     The University of Washington maintains & supports a tape distribution of
     TeX for Unix systems.  The core material is Karl Berry's `web2c' TeX
     package.  Sources are available via anonymous ftp; retrieval
     instructions are in `/pub/tex/unixtex.ftp' on `ftp.cs.umb.edu'.  If you
     receive any installation support from the University of Washington,
     consider sending them a donation.

     To order a full distribution written in `tar' on either a 1/4inch
     4-track QIC-24 cartridge or a 4mm DAT cartridge, send $210.00 to:

	  Pierre A. MacKay
	  Department of Classics
	  DH-10, Denny Hall 218
	  University of Washington
	  Seattle, WA	98195

	  Electronic-Mail: `mackay@cs.washington.edu'
	  Telephone: +1-206-543-2268

     Please make checks payable to: `University of Washington'.	 Do not
     specify any other payee.  That causes accounting problems.	 Checks must
     be in U.S. dollars, drawn on a U.S. bank.	Only prepaid orders can be
     handled.  Overseas sites: please add to the base cost $20.00 to ship via
     air parcel post or $30.00 to ship via courier.  Please check with the
     above for current prices & formats.

   * Texinfo   (DjgpD,DosBC,LangT,LspEmcT,SrcCD,UtilD,UtilT)[FSFman]

     Texinfo is a set of utilities (`makeinfo', `info', `texi2dvi',
     `texindex', `tex2patch', & `fixfonts') which generate both printed
     manuals & online hypertext documentation (called "Info"), & can read
     online Info documents.  Version 3 has both Emacs Lisp & standalone
     programs written in C or shell script.  Texinfo mode for Emacs enables
     easy editing & updating of Texinfo files.	Source for the `Texinfo
     Manual' is included (*note Documentation::.).

   * Textutils	 (DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)

     The Textutils programs manipulate textual data.  They include: `cat',
     `cksum', `comm', `csplit', `cut', `expand', `fmt', `fold', `head',
     `join', `md5sum', `nl', `od', `paste', `pr', `sort', `split', `sum',
     `tac', `tail', `tr', `unexpand', `uniq', and `wc'.

   * Tile Forth	  (LangT, SrcCD)

     Tile Forth is a 32-bit implementation of the Forth-83 standard written
     in C, allowing it to be easily ported to new systems and extended with
     any C-function (graphics, windowing, etc).

     Many documented Forth libraries are available, including ones for
     top-down parsing, multi-threads, & object oriented programming.

   * `time'   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     `time' reports (usually from a shell) the user, system, & real time used
     by a process.  On some systems it also reports memory usage, page
     faults, etc.

   * `ucblogo'	 (LangT, SrcCD)

     `ucblogo' implements the classic teaching language, Logo.

   * UUCP   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     GNU's UUCP system (written by Ian Lance Taylor) supports the `f', `g',
     `v' (all window & packet sizes), `G', `t', `e', Zmodem, & two new
     bidirectional (`i' & `j') protocols.  With a BSD sockets library, it can
     make TCP connections.  With TLI libraries, it can make TLI connections.
     Source is included for a manual (not yet published by the FSF).

   * W3	  (LspEmcT, SrcCD)

     W3 (written by William Perry in Emacs Lisp) is an extensible, advanced
     World Wide Web browser that runs as part of GNU Emacs.  It understands
     many protocols: FTP, gopher, HTML, SMTP, Telnet, WAIS, et al.

   * `wdiff'   (DosBC, SrcCD, UtilT)

     `wdiff' is a front-end to GNU `diff'.  It compares two files, finding
     the words deleted or added to the first to make the second.  It has many
     output formats and works well with terminals and pagers.  `wdiff' is
     very useful when two texts differ only by a few words and paragraphs
     have been refilled.

   * X11   *For details, see *Note X11 Tapes::*	  (SrcCD, X11OptT, X11ReqT)

   * `xboard', `xshogi'	  (SrcCD, UtilT)

     `xboard' is an X Window interface to GNU Chess.  `xshogi' is an X Window
     interface to GNU Shogi.  They use the R4 Athena widgets and Xt
     Intrinsics to provide an interactive referee for managing a game between
     a user & a computer opponent, or between two computers.  You can also use
     `xboard' without GNU Chess to play through games in files or to play
     through games manually (force mode); in this case, moves aren't

   * `xgrabsc'	 (SrcCD)

     `xgrabsc' is a screen capture program similar to `xwd' but providing
     more ways of selecting the part of the screen to capture and different
     types of output: Postscript, color Postscript, xwd, bitmap, pixmap, and

   * `Ygl'   (SrcCD, UtilT)

     `Ygl' emulates a subset of SGI's GL (Graphics Language) library under
     X11 on GNU/Linux with XFree, AIX 3.2, ConvexOS, HP-UX, SunOS, et al.  It
     has most two-dimensional graphics routines, the queue device & query
     routines, double buffering, RGB mode with dithering, FORTRAN bindings,
     at al.

Program/Package Cross Reference

Here is a list of what package each GNU program or library is in.  You can FTP
the current list in the file `/pub/gnu/ProgramIndex' from a GNU FTP host
(listed in *Note How to Get GNU Software::).

	* a2p perl
	* a2x xopt
	* ac bsd44
	* accton bsd44
	* ackpfd phttpd
	* acl bsd44
	* acm acm
	* acms acm
	* addftinfo Groff
	* adventure bsd44
	* afm2tfm TeX
	* amd bsd44
	* ansitape bsd44
	* AnswerGarden xopt
	* apply bsd44
	* appres xreq
	* apropos bsd44
	* ar Binutils
	* arithmetic bsd44
	* arp bsd44
	* atc bsd44
	* autoconf Autoconf
	* autoheader Autoconf
	* autoreconf Autoconf
	* autoscan Autoconf
	* autoupdate Autoconf
	* auto_box xopt
	* auto_box xreq

	* b2m Emacs
	* backgammon bsd44
	* bad144 bsd44
	* badsect bsd44
	* banner bsd44
	* basename Shellutils
	* bash BASH
	* battlestar bsd44
	* bc bc
	* bcd bsd44
	* bdes bsd44
	* bdftops Ghostscript
	* beach_ball xopt
	* beach_ball xreq
	* beach_ball2 xopt
	* bibtex TeX
	* biff bsd44
	* bison Bison
	* bitmap xreq
	* boggle bsd44
	* bpltobzr Fontutils
	* bugfiler bsd44
	* buildhash Ispell
	* bzrto Fontutils

	* c++ GCC
	* c++filt Binutils
	* c2ph perl
	* ca100 xopt
	* caesar bsd44
	* cal bsd44
	* calendar bsd44
	* canfield bsd44
	* cat Textutils
	* cbars wdiff
	* cc GCC
	* cc1 GCC
	* cc1obj GCC
	* cc1plus GCC
	* cccp GCC
	* cdwrite mkisofs
	* cfengine cfengine
	* cgi Spinner
	* charspace Fontutils
	* checknr bsd44
	* chess bsd44
	* chflags bsd44
	* chgrp Fileutils
	* ching bsd44
	* chmod Fileutils
	* chown Fileutils
	* chpass bsd44
	* chroot bsd44
	* ci RCS
	* cksum Textutils
	* cktyps g77
	* clisp CLISP
	* clri bsd44
	* cmail xboard
	* cmmf TeX
	* cmodext xopt
	* cmp Diffutils
	* co RCS
	* col bsd44
	* colcrt bsd44
	* colrm bsd44
	* column bsd44
	* comm Textutils
	* compress bsd44
	* comsat bsd44
	* connectd bsd44
	* cp Fileutils
	* cpicker xopt
	* cpio cpio
	* cpp GCC
	* cppstdin perl
	* cribbage bsd44
	* crock xopt
	* csh bsd44
	* csplit Textutils
	* ctags Emacs
	* ctwm xopt
	* cu UUCP
	* cut Textutils
	* cvs CVS
	* cvscheck CVS
	* cvtmail Emacs
	* cxterm xopt

	* d Fileutils
	* date Shellutils
	* dc bc
	* dd Fileutils
	* ddd DDD
	* delatex TeX
	* demangle Binutils
	* descend CVS
	* detex TeX
	* df Fileutils
	* dhtppd phttpd
	* diff Diffutils
	* diff3 Diffutils
	* digest-doc Emacs
	* dipress bsd44
	* dir Fileutils
	* dirname Shellutils
	* dish xopt
	* disklabel bsd44
	* diskpart bsd44
	* dld dld
	* dm bsd44
	* dmesg bsd44
	* doschk doschk
	* dox xopt
	* du Fileutils
	* dump bsd44
	* dump mkisofs
	* dumpfs bsd44
	* dvi2tty TeX
	* dvicopy TeX
	* dvips TeX
	* dvitype TeX

	* ecc ecc
	* echo Shellutils
	* ed ed
	* edit-pr GNATS
	* editres xreq
	* edquota bsd44
	* eeprom bsd44
	* egrep grep
	* emacs Emacs
	* emacsclient Emacs
	* emacsserver Emacs
	* emacstool Emacs
	* emu xopt
	* env Shellutils
	* eqn Groff
	* error bsd44
	* es es
	* esdebug es
	* etags Emacs
	* ex nvi
	* expand Textutils
	* expect DejaGnu
	* expr Shellutils
	* exterm xopt

	* f2c f2c
	* factor bsd44
	* fakemail Emacs
	* false Shellutils
	* fastboot bsd44
	* fax2ps HylaFAX
	* faxalter HylaFAX
	* faxanswer HylaFAX
	* faxcover HylaFAX
	* faxd HylaFAX
	* faxd.recv HylaFAX
	* faxmail HylaFAX
	* faxquit HylaFAX
	* faxrcvd HylaFAX
	* faxrm HylaFAX
	* faxstat HylaFAX
	* fc f2c
	* fdraw xopt
	* ffe g77
	* fgrep grep
	* file bsd44
	* find Findutils
	* find2perl perl
	* finger Finger
	* fingerd Finger
	* fish bsd44
	* fixfonts Texinfo
	* fixinc.svr4 GCC
	* fixincludes GCC
	* flex flex
	* flex++ flex
	* fmt bsd44
	* fold Textutils
	* font2c Ghostscript
	* fontconvert Fontutils
	* forth Tile Forth
	* forthicon Tile Forth
	* forthtool Tile Forth
	* fortune bsd44
	* fpr bsd44
	* freq Ispell
	* freqtbl Ispell
	* from bsd44
	* fsck bsd44
	* fsplit bsd44
	* fstat bsd44
	* ftp bsd44
	* ftpd bsd44

	* g++ GCC
	* gas Binutils
	* gawk GAWK
	* gcc GCC
	* gcore bsd44
	* gdb GDB
	* genclass libg++
	* gettext gettext
	* getty bsd44
	* gftodvi TeX
	* gftopk TeX
	* gftype TeX
	* ghostview Ghostview
	* git GIT
	* gitaction GIT
	* gitcmp GIT
	* gitkeys GIT
	* gitmatch GIT
	* gitmount GIT
	* gitps GIT
	* gitredir GIT
	* gitrgrep GIT
	* gitview GIT
	* gitwipe GIT
	* gn GN
	* gnans Gnans
	* gnanslator Gnans
	* gnats GNATS
	* gnuchess Chess
	* gnuchessc Chess
	* gnuchessn Chess
	* gnuchessr Chess
	* gnuchessx Chess
	* gnuclient gnuserv
	* gnudoit gnuserv
	* gnupdisp Shogi
	* gnuplot gnuplot
	* gnuplot_x11 gnuplot
	* gnuserv gnuserv
	* gnushogi Shogi
	* gnushogir Shogi
	* gnushogix Shogi
	* go GnuGo
	* gpc xopt
	* gpc xreq
	* gperf cperf
	* gperf libg++
	* gprof Binutils
	* graph Graphics
	* grep grep
	* grodvi Groff
	* groff Groff
	* grops Groff
	* grotty Groff
	* groups Shellutils
	* gs Ghostscript
	* gsbj Ghostscript
	* gsdj Ghostscript
	* gslj Ghostscript
	* gslp Ghostscript
	* gsnd Ghostscript
	* gsrenderfont Fontutils
	* gunzip gzip
	* gwm xopt
	* gzexe gzip
	* gzip gzip

	* h2ph perl
	* h2pl perl
	* hack bsd44
	* hangman bsd44
	* head Textutils
	* hello hello
	* hexdump bsd44
	* hexl Emacs
	* hostname Shellutils
	* hp2xx hp2xx
	* hterm xopt
	* htmlencode phttpd
	* httpd apache
	* httpdecode phttpd

	* i18nOlwmV2 xopt
	* i2mif xopt
	* ico xopt
	* ico xreq
	* id Shellutils
	* ident RCS
	* ifconfig bsd44
	* ifnames Autoconf
	* ImageMagick xopt
	* imageto Fontutils
	* iman xopt
	* imgrotate Fontutils
	* indent indent
	* indxbib Groff
	* inetd bsd44
	* info Texinfo
	* inimf TeX
	* init bsd44
	* initex TeX
	* inn bsd44
	* install Fileutils
	* iostat bsd44
	* isodiag mkisofs
	* isodump mkisofs
	* ispell Ispell
	* ixterm xopt
	* ixx xopt

	* join Textutils
	* jot bsd44
	* jove bsd44

	* kdestroy bsd44
	* kdump bsd44
	* kermit bsd44
	* kgames xopt
	* kgmon bsd44
	* kill bsd44
	* kinit bsd44
	* kinput2 xopt
	* klist bsd44
	* kpasswdd bsd44
	* ksrvtgt bsd44
	* kterm xopt
	* ktrace bsd44

	* lam bsd44
	* larn bsd44
	* lasergnu gnuplot
	* last bsd44
	* lastcomm bsd44
	* latex TeX
	* lclock xopt
	* ld Binutils
	* leave bsd44
	* less less
	* lesskey less
	* libavcall.a ffcall
	* libbfd.a Binutils
	* libbfd.a GDB
	* libbzr.a Fontutils
	* libc.a C Library
	* libcompat.a bsd44
	* libcurses.a bsd44
	* libcurses.a ncurses
	* libdcurses.a ncurses
	* libedit.a bsd44
	* libF77.a f2c
	* libF77.a g77
	* libg++.a libg++
	* libgdbm.a gdbm
	* libgf.a Fontutils
	* libgmp.a gmp
	* libgnanslib Gnans
	* libI77.a f2c
	* libI77.a g77
	* libkvm.a bsd44
	* libm.a bsd44
	* libncurses.a ncurses
	* libnihcl.a NIHCL
	* libnihclmi.a NIHCL
	* libnihclvec.a NIHCL
	* libnls.a xreq
	* libobjects.a libobjects
	* liboctave.a Octave
	* liboldX.a xreq
	* libpbm.a Fontutils
	* libPEXt.a xopt
	* libpk.a Fontutils
	* libresolv.a bsd44
	* librpc.a bsd44
	* libsipp.a SIPP
	* libtcl.a DejaGnu
	* libtelnet.a bsd44
	* libterm.a bsd44
	* libtermcap.a Termcap
	* libtfm.a Fontutils
	* libutil.a bsd44
	* libvacall.a ffcall
	* libWc.a xopt
	* libwidgets.a Fontutils
	* libX.a xreq
	* libXau.a xreq
	* libXaw.a xreq
	* libXcp.a xopt
	* libXcu.a xopt
	* libXdmcp.a xreq
	* libXmp.a xopt
	* libXmu.a xreq
	* libXO.a xopt
	* libXop.a xopt
	* libXp.a xopt
	* libXpex.a xopt
	* libXt.a xopt
	* libXt.a xreq
	* libXwchar.a xopt
	* liby.a bsd44
	* libYgl.a Ygl
	* limn Fontutils
	* listres xopt
	* listres xreq
	* lkbib Groff
	* ln Fileutils
	* locate Findutils
	* lock bsd44
	* logcvt-ip2n phttpd
	* logger bsd44
	* login bsd44
	* logname Shellutils
	* logo ucblogo
	* lookbib Groff
	* lorder bsd44
	* lpr bsd44
	* ls Fileutils

	* m4 m4
	* mail bsd44
	* mail-files Sharutils
	* mailshar Sharutils
	* make make
	* make-docfile Emacs
	* make-path Emacs
	* makeindex TeX
	* makeinfo Texinfo
	* MakeTeXPK TeX
	* man bsd44
	* man-macros Groff
	* mattrib mtools
	* maze xopt
	* maze xreq
	* mazewar xopt
	* mc mc
	* mcd mtools
	* mcopy mtools
	* mcserv mc
	* mdel mtools
	* mdir mtools
	* me-macros Groff
	* merge RCS
	* mesg bsd44
	* mf TeX
	* mformat mtools
	* mft TeX
	* mgdiff xopt
	* mh bsd44
	* mille bsd44
	* mkcache GN
	* mkdep bsd44
	* mkdir Fileutils
	* mkfifo Fileutils
	* mkisofs mkisofs
	* mklocale bsd44
	* mkmanifest mtools
	* mkmf bsd44
	* mkmodules CVS
	* mknod Fileutils
	* mkstr bsd44
	* mlabel mtools
	* mm-macros Groff
	* mmd mtools
	* monop bsd44
	* more bsd44
	* morse bsd44
	* mount bsd44
	* mountd bsd44
	* movemail Emacs
	* mprof bsd44
	* mrd mtools
	* mread mtools
	* mren mtools
	* ms-macros Groff
	* msgcmp gettext
	* msgfmt gettext
	* msgmerge gettext
	* msgs bsd44
	* msgunfmt gettext
	* mst Smalltalk
	* mt cpio
	* mterm xopt
	* mtree bsd44
	* mtype mtools
	* mule MULE
	* muncher xopt
	* mv Fileutils
	* mvdir Fileutils
	* mwrite mtools

	* nethack NetHack
	* netstat bsd44
	* newfs bsd44
	* nfsd bsd44
	* nfsiod bsd44
	* nfsstat bsd44
	* nice Shellutils
	* nl Textutils
	* nlmconv Binutils
	* nm Binutils
	* nohup Shellutils
	* notify HylaFAX
	* nroff Groff
	* number bsd44

	* objc GCC
	* objcopy Binutils
	* objdump Binutils
	* objective-c GCC
	* obst-boot OBST
	* obst-CC OBST
	* obst-cct OBST
	* obst-cgc OBST
	* obst-cmp OBST
	* obst-cnt OBST
	* obst-cpcnt OBST
	* obst-csz OBST
	* obst-dir OBST
	* obst-dmp OBST
	* obst-gen OBST
	* obst-gsh OBST
	* obst-init OBST
	* obst-scp OBST
	* obst-sil OBST
	* obst-stf OBST
	* oclock xreq
	* octave Octave
	* od Textutils
	* oleo Oleo
	* ora-examples xopt

	* p2c p2c
	* pagesize bsd44
	* palette xopt
	* pascal bsd44
	* passwd bsd44
	* paste Textutils
	* patch patch
	* patgen TeX
	* pathalias bsd44
	* pathchk Shellutils
	* pax bsd44
	* pbmplus xopt
	* perl perl
	* pfbtops Groff
	* phantasia bsd44
	* phttpd phttpd
	* pic Groff
	* pico pine
	* pig bsd44
	* pine pine
	* ping bsd44
	* pixedit xopt
	* pixmap xopt
	* pktogf TeX
	* pktype TeX
	* plaid xopt
	* plot2fig Graphics
	* plot2plot Graphics
	* plot2ps Graphics
	* plot2tek Graphics
	* pltotf TeX
	* pollrcvd HylaFAX
	* pom bsd44
	* pooltype TeX
	* portmap bsd44
	* ppt bsd44
	* pr Textutils
	* pr-addr GNATS
	* pr-edit GNATS
	* primes bsd44
	* printenv Shellutils
	* printf Shellutils
	* protoize GCC
	* proxygarb Spinner
	* ps bsd44
	* ps2ascii Ghostscript
	* ps2epsi Ghostscript
	* ps2fax HylaFAX
	* psbb Groff
	* pstat bsd44
	* psycho xopt
	* ptester phttpd
	* ptx ptx
	* pubdic+ xopt
	* puzzle xopt
	* puzzle xreq
	* pwd Shellutils
	* pyramid xopt

	* query-pr GNATS
	* quiz bsd44
	* quot bsd44
	* quota bsd44
	* quotacheck bsd44
	* quotaon bsd44

	* rain bsd44
	* random bsd44
	* ranlib Binutils
	* rbootd bsd44
	* rc rc
	* rcp bsd44
	* rcs RCS
	* rcs-to-cvs CVS
	* rcs2log Emacs
	* rcsdiff RCS
	* rcsfreeze RCS
	* rcsmerge RCS
	* rdist bsd44
	* reboot bsd44
	* recode recode
	* recvstats HylaFAX
	* red ed
	* refer Groff
	* remsync Sharutils
	* renice bsd44
	* repquota bsd44
	* restore bsd44
	* rev bsd44
	* rexecd bsd44
	* rlog RCS
	* rlogin bsd44
	* rlogind bsd44
	* rm Fileutils
	* rmail bsd44
	* rmdir Fileutils
	* rmt cpio
	* rmt tar
	* robots bsd44
	* rogue bsd44
	* route bsd44
	* routed bsd44
	* rr xopt
	* rs bsd44
	* rsh bsd44
	* rshd bsd44
	* runtest DejaGnu
	* runtest.exp DejaGnu
	* ruptime bsd44
	* rwho bsd44
	* rwhod bsd44

	* s2p perl
	* sail bsd44
	* saoimage SAOimage
	* savecore bsd44
	* sc bsd44
	* sccs bsd44
	* sccs2rcs CVS
	* scdisp xopt
	* screen screen
	* script bsd44
	* scsiformat bsd44
	* sctext xopt
	* sdiff Diffutils
	* sed sed
	* send-pr GNATS
	* sendfax HylaFAX
	* sendmail bsd44
	* sgi2fax HylaFAX
	* sgn GN
	* sh bsd44
	* shar Sharutils
	* shinbun xopt
	* shogi Shogi
	* showfont xopt
	* showmount bsd44
	* shutdown bsd44
	* size Binutils
	* sj3 xopt
	* sjxa xopt
	* slattach bsd44
	* sleep Shellutils
	* sliplogin bsd44
	* snake bsd44
	* snftobdf xopt
	* soelim Groff
	* sort Textutils
	* sos2obst OBST
	* spider xopt
	* split Textutils
	* startslip bsd44
	* stf OBST
	* strings Binutils
	* strip Binutils
	* stty Shellutils
	* su Shellutils
	* sum Textutils
	* superopt Superopt
	* swapon bsd44
	* sync bsd44
	* sysctl bsd44
	* syslogd bsd44
	* systat bsd44

	* tabs Termutils
	* tac Textutils
	* tail Textutils
	* taintperl perl
	* talk bsd44
	* talkd bsd44
	* tangle TeX
	* tar tar
	* tbl Groff
	* tcl DejaGnu
	* tclsh DejaGnu
	* tcopy bsd44
	* tcp Emacs
	* tee Shellutils
	* tek2plot Graphics
	* telnet bsd44
	* telnetd bsd44
	* test Shellutils
	* test-g++ DejaGnu
	* test-tool DejaGnu
	* tetris bsd44
	* tex TeX
	* tex3patch Texinfo
	* texi2dvi Texinfo
	* texindex Texinfo
	* texspell TeX
	* textfmt HylaFAX
	* tfmtodit Groff
	* tftopl TeX
	* tftp bsd44
	* tftpd bsd44
	* tgrind TeX
	* time time
	* timed bsd44
	* timer Emacs
	* timex xopt
	* tip bsd44
	* tkpostage xopt
	* tn3270 bsd44
	* touch Fileutils
	* tput Termutils
	* tr Textutils
	* traceroute bsd44
	* transcript HylaFAX
	* transfig xopt
	* trek bsd44
	* trn3 bsd44
	* troff Groff
	* trpt bsd44
	* trsp bsd44
	* true Shellutils
	* tset bsd44
	* tsort bsd44
	* tty Shellutils
	* ttygnans Gnans
	* tunefs bsd44
	* tupdate gettext
	* tvtwm xopt
	* twm xreq

	* ul bsd44
	* ulpc Spinner
	* umount bsd44
	* uname Shellutils
	* uncompress gzip
	* unexpand Textutils
	* unifdef bsd44
	* unify wdiff
	* uniq Textutils
	* unprotoize GCC
	* unshar Sharutils
	* unvis bsd44
	* update bsd44
	* updatedb Findutils
	* users Shellutils
	* uuchk UUCP
	* uucico UUCP
	* uuconv UUCP
	* uucp UUCP
	* uucpd bsd44
	* uudecode Sharutils
	* uudir UUCP
	* uuencode Sharutils
	* uulog UUCP
	* uuname UUCP
	* uupick UUCP
	* uurate UUCP
	* uusched UUCP
	* uustat UUCP
	* uuto UUCP
	* uux UUCP
	* uuxqt UUCP

	* v Fileutils
	* vacation bsd44
	* vandal xopt
	* vcdiff Emacs
	* vdir Fileutils
	* vftovp TeX
	* vgrind bsd44
	* vi nvi
	* viewres xopt
	* viewres xreq
	* vine xopt
	* vipw bsd44
	* virmf TeX
	* virtex TeX
	* vis bsd44
	* vmstat bsd44
	* vptovf TeX

	* w bsd44
	* waisgn GN
	* wakeup Emacs
	* wall bsd44
	* wargames bsd44
	* wc Textutils
	* wdiff wdiff
	* weave TeX
	* what bsd44
	* whatis bsd44
	* whereis bsd44
	* who Shellutils
	* whoami Shellutils
	* whois bsd44
	* window bsd44
	* winterp xopt
	* wish DejaGnu
	* worm bsd44
	* worms bsd44
	* write bsd44
	* wump bsd44

	* x11perf xreq
	* x2p perl
	* xalarm xopt
	* xancur xopt
	* xargs Findutils
	* xauth xreq
	* xbfe Fontutils
	* xbiff xopt
	* xbiff xreq
	* xboard xboard
	* xboing xopt
	* xbuffy3 xopt
	* xcalc xopt
	* xcalc xreq
	* xcalendar xopt
	* xcdplayer xopt
	* xcell xopt
	* xclipboard xreq
	* xclock xreq
	* xcmdmenu xopt
	* xcms xopt
	* xcmsdb xreq
	* xcmstest xreq
	* xco xopt
	* xcolorize xopt
	* xcolors xopt
	* xconsole xreq
	* xcrtca xopt
	* xdaliclock xopt
	* xdiary xopt
	* xditview Groff
	* xditview xopt
	* xditview xreq
	* xdm xreq
	* xdpyinfo xreq
	* xdu xopt
	* xdvi TeX
	* xdvi xopt
	* xdvorak xopt
	* xearth xopt
	* xed xopt
	* xedit xopt
	* xedit xreq
	* xev xopt
	* xev xreq
	* xexit xopt
	* xeyes xopt
	* xeyes xreq
	* xfd xreq
	* xfed xopt
	* xfedor xopt
	* xfeoak xopt
	* xferstats HylaFAX
	* xfig xopt
	* xfontsel xopt
	* xfontsel xreq
	* xforecast xopt
	* xgas xopt
	* xgas xreq
	* xgc xopt
	* xgc xreq
	* xgettext gettext
	* xhearts xopt
	* xhelp xopt
	* xhost xreq
	* xinit xreq
	* xkeycaps xopt
	* xkill xreq
	* xlax xopt
	* xlayout xopt
	* xlbiff xopt
	* xless xopt
	* xload xopt
	* xload xreq
	* xlogin xopt
	* xlogo xreq
	* xlsatoms xreq
	* xlsclients xreq
	* xlsfonts xreq
	* xmag xreq
	* xmail xopt
	* xmailbox xopt
	* xmailwatcher xopt
	* xman xopt
	* xman xreq
	* xmandel xopt
	* xmessage xopt
	* xmeter xopt
	* xmh xreq
	* xmh-icons xopt
	* xmh.editor xopt
	* xmodmap xreq
	* xmon xopt
	* xmove xopt
	* xmphone xopt
	* xpd xopt
	* xphoon xopt
	* xpipeman xopt
	* xplot Graphics
	* xpostit xopt
	* xpr xopt
	* xpr xreq
	* xprompt xopt
	* xproof xopt
	* xprop xreq
	* xpserv xopt
	* xrdb xreq
	* xrefresh xreq
	* xrsh xopt
	* xrubik xopt
	* xrunclient xopt
	* xscope xopt
	* xscreensaver xopt
	* xsession xopt
	* xset xreq
	* xsetroot xreq
	* xshogi xshogi
	* xstdcmap xreq
	* xstr bsd44
	* xtalk xopt
	* xterm xreq
	* xterm_color xopt
	* xtetris xopt
	* xTeXcad.13 xopt
	* xtiff xopt
	* xtree xopt
	* xtv xopt
	* xwd xreq
	* xwininfo xreq
	* xwud xreq

	* yacc bsd44
	* yes Shellutils
	* youbin xopt
	* yow Emacs

	* zcat gzip
	* zcmp gzip
	* zdiff gzip
	* zforce gzip
	* zgrep gzip
	* zmore gzip
	* znew gzip

	* [ Shellutils


We offer Unix source code on tapes in `tar' format on these media:

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The contents of the various tapes for Unix systems are the same; only the
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(*note Documentation::.).

Some of the files on the tapes are compressed with `gzip' to allow more files
on each tape.  Refer to the top-level `README' file at the beginning of each
tape for instructions on uncompressing them.  `uncompress' and `unpack' *do
not work*!

Languages Tape

This tape contains programming tools: compilers, interpreters and, related
programs (parsers, translators, debuggers, linkers, etc.).

	* Binutils 2.6
	* Bison 1.24
	* C Library 1.09
	* cperf 2.1a
	* DejaGnu 1.2
	* dld 3.2.3
	* ecc 1.2.1
	* f2c 1995.02.24
	* flex 2.5.2
	* g77 0.5.17
	* GAWK 2.15.6
	* GCC/G++/Objective-C 2.7.2
	* GDB 4.15.1
	* gdbm 1.7.3
	* gettext 0.10
	* gmp 1.3.2
	* gzip 1.2.4
	* indent 1.9.1
	* libg++ 2.7.1
	* libobjects 0.1.3
	* make 3.74
	* ncurses 1.9.4
	* NIHCL 3.1.4
	* OBST 3.4.3
	* Octave 1.1.1
	* p2c 1.20
	* perl 4.036
	* perl 5.001
	* regex 0.12
	* rx 0.05
	* Smalltalk 1.1.1
	* Superopt 2.5
	* Texinfo 3.6
	* Tile Forth 2.1
	* ucblogo 3.3

Lisps/Emacs Tape

This tape has Common Lisp systems and libraries, GNU Emacs, assorted
extensions that work with Emacs, manuals, & a few other important utilities.

	* Calc 2.02c
	* CLISP 1995.12.04
	* CLX 5.02
	* Common Lisp 2.2
	* Elib 0.06
	* Emacs 18.59
	* Emacs 19.28
	* Emacs 19.30
	* GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual Ed. 1.03 for Version 18
	* GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual Ed. 2.4 for Version 19.29
	* gnuserv 2.1alpha
	* gzip 1.2.4
	* Hyperbole 4.01
	* make 3.74
	* MULE 2.3
	* PCL 2.2
	* Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction Ed. 1.04
	* Texinfo 3.6
	* W3 2.2.25

Utilities Tape

This tape consists mostly of smaller utilities and miscellaneous applications.

	* acm 4.7
	* Autoconf 2.7
	* BASH 1.14.5
	* bc 1.03
	* cfengine 1.2.14
	* cfengine 1.2.22
	* Chess 4.0.pl75
	* cpio 2.3
	* CVS 1.6
	* Diffutils 2.7
	* doschk 1.1
	* ed 0.2
	* es 0.84
	* Fileutils 3.12
	* Findutils 4.1
	* Finger 1.37
	* Fontutils 0.6
	* Ghostscript 2.6.2
	* Ghostview 1.5
	* Ghostview for Windows 1.0
	* GIT 4.3.6
	* GNATS 3.2
	* GnuGo 1.2
	* gnuplot 3.5
	* Graphics 0.17
	* grep 2.0
	* Groff 1.10
	* gzip 1.2.4
	* hello 1.3
	* hp2xx 3.1.4
	* HylaFAX 3.0.0
	* Ispell 3.1.20
	* less 2.9.0
	* m4 1.4
	* make 3.74
	* MandelSpawn 0.07
	* mc 3.0
	* mkisofs 1.04
	* mm 1.07
	* mtools 2.0.7
	* NetHack 3.1.3
	* nvi 1.34
	* Oleo 1.6
	* patch 2.1
	* pine 3.91
	* ptx 0.4
	* rc 1.4
	* RCS 5.7
	* readline 2.0
	* recode 3.4
	* SAOimage 1.16
	* screen 3.7.1
	* sed 2.05
	* Sharutils 4.2
	* Shellutils 1.12
	* Shogi 1.2.3
	* tar 1.11.8
	* Termcap 1.3
	* Termutils 2.0
	* Texinfo 3.6
	* Textutils 1.13
	* time 1.6
	* UUCP 1.06.1
	* wdiff 0.5
	* xboard 3.4.pl0
	* xshogi 1.2.03
	* Ygl 3.0.3

Scheme Tape

Scheme is a simplified, lexically-scoped dialect of Lisp.  It was designed at
MIT and other universities to teach students the art of programming and to
research new parallel programming constructs and compilation techniques.

This tape now has MIT Scheme 7.3, which conforms to the "Revised^4 Report On
the Algorithmic Language Scheme" (MIT AI Lab Memo 848b), for which TeX source
is included.  It is written partly in C, but is presently hard to bootstrap.
Binaries that can be used to bootstrap it exist for: HP 9000 series 300, 400,
700, & 800 (running HP-UX 9.0), NeXT (NeXT OS 2 or 3.2), DEC Alpha (OSF/1),
IBM RS/6000 (AIX), Sun-3 or Sun-4 (SunOS 4.1), DECstation 3100/5100 (Ultrix
4.0), Sony NeWS-3250 (NEWS OS 5.01), & Intel i386 (MS-DOS, Windows 3.1 or NT).
If your system is not on this list & you don't enjoy the bootstrap challenge,
see "JACAL" in *Note GNU Software::.

X11 Tapes

The two X11 tapes contain Version 11, Release 6 of the X Window System.	 The
first tape has all of the core software, documentation, & some contributed
clients.  We call this the "required" X tape since it is necessary for
running X or Emacs under X.  The second, "optional" tape has contributed
libraries & toolkits, the Andrew User Interface System, games, etc.

The X11 Required tape also contains all fixes and patches released to date.
We update this tape as new fixes and patches are released for programs on
both tapes.  *Note Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service::.

While supplies last, we will distribute X11R5 on the *Note November 1993
Source Code CD-ROM::.

Berkeley 4.4BSD-Lite Tape

The "4.4BSD-Lite" release is the last from the Computer Systems Research
Group at the University of California at Berkeley.  It has most of the BSD
software system, except for a few files that remain proprietary.  It is much
more complete than the previous "Net2" release.

VMS Emacs and VMS Compiler Tapes

We offer two VMS tapes.	 One has just GNU Emacs 18.59 (none of the other
software on the *Note Lisps/Emacs Tape::, is included).	 The other has GCC
2.3.3, Bison 1.19 (to compile GCC), `gas' 1.38 (to assemble GCC's output), and
some library and include files (none of the other software on the *Note
Languages Tape::, is included).	 We are not aware of a GDB port for VMS.
Both VMS tapes have DEC VAX executables from which you can bootstrap, as the
DEC VMS C compiler cannot compile GCC.	We do not have executables for DEC
Alpha VMS systems.  Please do not ask us to devote effort to VMS support,
because it is peripheral to the GNU Project.


     *If nature has made any one thing less susceptible than all others of
     exclusive property, it is the action of the thinking power called an
     idea, which an individual may exclusively possess as long as he keeps it
     to himself; but the moment it is divulged, it forces itself into the
     possession of everyone, and the receiver cannot dispossess himself of it.
     Its peculiar character, too, is that no one possesses the less, because
     every other possesses the whole of it ... Inventions then cannot, in
     nature, be a subject of property.*

     - Thomas Jefferson



We offer these CD-ROMs:

   * Several editions of our *Note Source Code CD-ROMs::.

   * December 1995 *Note Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM::.

   * December 1994 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, see the *note Free
     Software Foundation Order Form::..

   * December 1993 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, see the *note Free
     Software Foundation Order Form::..

   * *Note MS-DOS Book with CD-ROM::.

   * *Note Debian GNU/Linux Book with CD-ROM::.

Our CD-ROMs are in ISO 9660 format & can be mounted as a read-only file
system on most computers.  If your driver supports it you can mount each CD
with "Rock Ridge" extensions (the MS-DOS CD-ROM is only in ISO 9660 format),
& it will look just like an ordinary Unix file system, rather than one full
of truncated & otherwise mangled names that fit vanilla ISO 9660.

You can build most of the software without copying the sources off the CD.
You only need enough disk space for object files and intermediate build

Pricing of the GNU CD-ROMs

If a business or organization is ultimately paying, the December 1995 Source
CDs costs $240.	 It costs $60 if you, an individual, are paying out of your
own pocket.  The December 1995 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM costs $220 for
a business or organization, and $55 for an individual.

What do the individual and company prices mean?

The software on our disks is free; anyone can copy it and anyone can run it.
What we charge for is the physical disk and the service of distribution.

We charge two different prices depending on who is buying.  When a company or
other organization buys the December 1995 Source CD-ROMs, we charge $240.
When an individual buys the same CD-ROM, we charge just $60.  This
distinction is not a matter of who is allowed to use the software.  In either
case, once you have a copy, you can distribute as many copies as you wish and
there's no restriction on who can have or run them.  The price distinction is
entirely a matter of what kind of entity pays for the CD.

You, the reader, are certainly an individual, not a company.  If you are
buying a disk "in person", then you are probably doing so as an individual.
But if you expect to be reimbursed by your employer, then the disk is really
for the company; so please pay the company price and get reimbursed for it.
We won't try to check up on you--we use the honor system--so please cooperate.

Buying CDs at the company price is very helpful for GNU; just
140 Source CDs at that price support an FSF programmer or tech writer for a

Why is there an individual price?

In the past, our distribution tapes have been ordered mainly by companies.
The CD at the price of $240 provides them with all of our software for a much
lower price than they would previously have paid for six different tapes.  To
lower the price more would cut into the FSF's funds very badly and decrease
the software development we can do.

However, for individuals, $240 is too high a price; hardly anyone could
afford that.  So we decided to make CDs available to individuals at the lower
price of $60.

Is there a maximum price?

Our stated prices are minimum prices.  Feel free to pay a higher price if you
wish to support GNU development more.  The sky's the limit; we will accept as
high a price as you can offer.	Or simply give a donation (tax-deductible in
the U.S.) to the Free Software Foundation, a tax-exempt public charity.

December 1995 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM

We now have the third edition of our CD-ROM that has binaries and complete
sources for GNU compiler tools for some systems which lack a compiler.	This
enables the people who use these systems to compile GNU and other free
software without having to buy a proprietary compiler.	You can also use
these GNU tools to compile your own C/C++/Objective-C programs.	 Older
editions of this CD are available while supplies last at a reduced price; see
the *note Free Software Foundation Order Form::..

We hope to have more systems on each update of this CD.	 If you can help
build binaries for new systems (especially those that don't come with a C
compiler), or have one to suggest, please contact us at the addresses on page

These packages:

	* DJGPP 1.12m4 from GCC 2.6.3
	* GCC/G++/Objective-C 2.7.1
	* GNU C Library 1.09
	* GDB 4.15.1
	* Binutils 2.6
	* Bison 1.24
	* Emacs 19.29 (MS-DOS only)
	* Flex 2.5.2
	* Make 3.74
	* libg++ 2.7.1

On these platforms:

	* `i386-msdos'
	* `hppa1.0-hp-hpux9'
	* `sparc-sun-solaris2'
	* `sparc-sun-sunos4.1'

MS-DOS Book with CD-ROM

We are working on our first book describing GNU Software for MS-DOS, but we
do not know when it will be finished.  It will include a CD-ROM with all the
sources & binaries on the MS-DOS Diskettes and more.

Please do NOT contact us about this book until we announce it on our mailing
lists (to subscribe, ask `info-gnu-request@prep.ai.mit.edu'), because it just
slows us down.

Debian GNU/Linux Book with CD-ROM

We are working on our first book describing Debian GNU/Linux but we do not
know when it will be finished.	Please do NOT contact us about this book
until we announce it on our mailing lists (ask
`info-gnu-request@prep.ai.mit.edu' to subscribe), because it just slows us

A CD will be inside the book with sources & binaries for Debian GNU/Linux,
which is a complete operating system for i386/i486/Pentium.  It is a
GNU/Linux system--that is to say, a variant GNU system which uses Linux as
the kernel.  (All the systems now available that use the Linux kernel are
GNU/Linux systems, see item "Linux" in *Note Free Software for

Debian is being developed by Ian Murdock and the Debian Association in
conjunction with the Free Software Foundation.	We are distributing it as an
interim measure until the GNU kernel (the Hurd) is ready for users.

For details on Debian & how to help, see URL: `http://www.debian.org/' or
FTP, `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/DEBIAN' from a GNU FTP host (*note How to Get GNU
Software::.).  FTP Debian under `/debian' from `ftp.debian.org'.


     *Those that give up their freedom in the name of security deserve

     - Benjamin Franklin


Source Code CD-ROMs

We have several versions of our Source Code CD-ROMs available, including:

   * *Note December 1995 Source Code CD-ROMs::, the newest release, has
     programs, bug fixes, & improvements not on the other CDs.

   * *Note June 1995 Source Code CD-ROM::.

   * May 1994 Source Code CD-ROM, see the *note Free Software Foundation
     Order Form::..

   * *Note November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM::.

   * May 1993 Source Code CD-ROM, see the *note Free Software Foundation
     Order Form::..

   * October 1992 Source Code CD-ROM, see the *note Free Software Foundation
     Order Form::..

The older Source CDs are available while supplies last at a reduced price
(please note that the December 1994 Source CD is permanently out of stock).
All the Source CDs have Texinfo source for the GNU manuals listed in *Note

The VMS tapes' contents are *not* included.  Many programs that are only on
MS-DOS diskettes & not on the tapes are also *not* included.  The MIT Scheme
& X11 Optional tapes' contents are *not* on the older Source CDs.  *Note
Tapes:: & *Note MS-DOS Diskettes::.

There are no precompiled programs on these Source CDs.	You will need a C
compiler (programs which need some other interpreter or compiler normally
provide the C source for a bootstrapping program).  We ship C compiler
binaries for some systems on the *Note Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM::.

December 1995 Source Code CD-ROMs

The 7th edition of our Source CD is out!  Due to increasing amounts of GNU
Software, the Source Code CD is now a two disc set--the price remains
unchanged!  It contains these packages, & some manuals that are not part of

	* acm 4.7
	* apache 0.8.8
	* Autoconf 2.7
	* BASH 1.14.5
	* bc 1.03
	* Binutils 2.5.2
	* Binutils 2.6
	* Bison 1.24
	* C Library 1.09
	* Calc 2.02c
	* cfengine 1.2.21
	* Chess 4.0.pl75
	* CLISP 1995.08.12
	* Common Lisp 2.2
	* cperf 2.1a
	* cpio 2.3
	* CVS 1.6
	* DDD 1.3b
	* DejaGnu 1.2.9
	* Diffutils 2.7
	* dld 3.2.3
	* doschk 1.1
	* ecc 1.2.1
	* ed 0.2
	* Elib 0.07
	* Elisp archive
	* Emacs 18.59
	* Emacs 19.28
	* Emacs 19.29
	* Emacs 19.30
	* es 0.84
	* f2c 1995.11.18
	* ffcall 1.0
	* Fileutils 3.12
	* Findutils 4.1
	* Finger 1.37
	* flex 2.5.2
	* Fontutils 0.6
	* g77 0.5.17
	* GAWK 2.15.6
	* GCC/G++/Objective C 2.7.1
	* GDB 4.15.1
	* gdbm 1.7.3
	* gettext 0.9a
	* Ghostscript 2.6.2
	* Ghostview 1.5
	* Ghostview for Windows 1.0
	* GIT 4.3.7
	* gmp 1.3.2
	* GN 2.23
	* Gnans 1.5
	* GNATS 3.2
	* GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, Ed. 1.03 for Version 18.59
	* GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, Ed. 2.4 for Version 19.29
	* GnuGo 1.2
	* gnuplot 3.5
	* gnuserv 2.1alpha
	* Graphics 0.17
	* grep 2.0
	* Groff 1.09
	* gzip 1.2.4
	* hello 1.3
	* hp2xx 3.1.4
	* HylaFAX v3.0pl0
	* Hyperbole 4.01
	* indent 1.9.1
	* Ispell 3.1.20
	* less 290
	* libg++ 2.7.1
	* libobjects 0.1.3
	* m4 1.4
	* make 3.74
	* mc 3.0
	* MIT Scheme 7.3
	* mkisofs 1.04GNU
	* mtools 2.0.7
	* MULE 2.3
	* ncurses 1.9.7a
	* NetHack 3.1.3
	* NIHCL 3.1.4
	* nvi 1.34
	* Oaklisp 93.07.23
	* OBST 3.4.3
	* Octave 1.1.1
	* Oleo 1.6
	* p2c 1.20
	* patch 2.1
	* perl 4.036
	* perl 5.001
	* phttpd 0.99.68
	* pine 3.91
	* Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction, Ed. 1.04
	* ptx 0.4
	* rc 1.4
	* RCS 5.7
	* recode 3.4
	* regex 0.12
	* rx 0.05
	* SAOimage 1.08
	* screen 3.7.1
	* sed 2.05
	* Sharutils 4.1
	* Shellutils 1.12
	* Shogi 1.2p03
	* SIPP 3.1
	* Smalltalk 1.1.1
	* SNePS 2.3.1
	* Spinner 1.0b11
	* Superopt 2.5
	* tar 1.11.8
	* Termcap 1.3
	* TeX 3.145
	* Texinfo 3.6
	* Textutils 1.13
	* Tile Forth 2.1
	* time 1.6
	* tput 1.0
	* ucblogo 3.3
	* UUCP 1.06.1
	* W3 2.2.25
	* wdiff 0.5
	* X11R6
	* xboard 3.3.pl3
	* xgrabsc 2.41
	* xshogi 1.2p03
	* Ygl 3.0.2

June 1995 Source Code CD-ROM

We still have the 6th edition of our Source CD at a reduced price while
supplies last.	Not all FSF distributed software is included (*note Source
Code CD-ROMs::.).  It contains these packages, and some manuals that are not
part of packages:

	* acm 4.7
	* Autoconf 2.4
	* BASH 1.14.5
	* bc 1.03
	* Binutils 2.5.2
	* Bison 1.24
	* C Library 1.09
	* Calc 2.02c
	* cfengine 1.0.4
	* Chess 4.0.pl74
	* CLISP 1995.04.25
	* Common Lisp 2.1
	* cperf 2.1a
	* cpio 2.3
	* CVS 1.3
	* DejaGnu 1.2
	* Diffutils 2.7
	* dld 3.2.3
	* doschk 1.1
	* ecc 1.2.1
	* ed 0.2
	* elib 0.06
	* Emacs 18.59
	* Emacs 19.28
	* Emacs 19.29
	* GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual Ed. 1.03 for Version 18
	* GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual Ed. 2.4 for Version 19.29
	* es 0.84
	* f2c 1995.02.24
	* Fileutils 3.12
	* Findutils 4.1
	* Finger 1.37
	* flex 2.5.2
	* Fontutils 0.6
	* g77 0.5.15
	* GAWK 2.15.6
	* GCC/G++/Objective C 2.6.3
	* GCC/G++/Objective C 2.7.0
	* GDB 4.14
	* gdbm 1.7.3
	* Ghostscript 2.6.2
	* Ghostview 1.5
	* Ghostview for Windows 1.0
	* GIT 4.3.6
	* gmp 1.3.2
	* GNATS 3.2
	* GnuGo 1.1
	* gnuplot 3.5
	* Graphics 0.17
	* grep 2.0
	* Groff 1.09
	* gzip 1.2.4
	* hello 1.3
	* hp2xx 3.1.4
	* HylaFAX 3.0.pl0
	* indent 1.9.1
	* Ispell 3.1.18
	* less 2.90
	* libg++ 2.6.2
	* libg++ 2.7.0
	* libobjects 0.1.3
	* m4 1.4
	* make 3.74
	* MandelSpawn 0.07
	* mkisofs 1.03GNU
	* mtools 2.0.7
	* MULE 2.2
	* ncurses 1.9.1
	* NetHack 3.1.3
	* NIHCL 3.1.4
	* nvi 1.34
	* OBST 3.4.3
	* Octave 1.1.1
	* Oleo 1.6
	* p2c 1.20
	* patch 2.1
	* PCL 2.1
	* perl 4.036
	* perl 5.001
	* pine 3.91
	* Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction Ed. 1.03 for Version 19
	* ptx 0.4
	* rc 1.4
	* RCS 5.7
	* recode 3.4
	* regex 0.12
	* rx 0.05
	* screen 3.6.2
	* sed 2.05
	* Sharutils 4.1
	* Shellutils 1.12
	* Shogi 1.2p03
	* Smalltalk 1.1.1
	* Superopt 2.5
	* tar 1.11.8
	* Termcap 1.2
	* TeX 3.1415
	* Texinfo 3.6
	* Textutils 1.12
	* Tile Forth 2.1
	* time 1.6
	* tput 1.0
	* ucblogo
	* UUCP 1.05
	* wdiff 0.5
	* X11R6
	* xboard 3.2.pl2
	* xshogi 1.2p03
	* Ygl 2.9.5

November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM

We still have the 3rd edition of our Source CD, at a reduced price, while
supplies last.	It was the last Source Code CD to contain X11R5.  This CD has
Edition 2.2 for version 19 of the `GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual' & some
additional software; not all FSF distributed software is included (*note
Source Code CD-ROMs::.).  It contains these packages:

	* acm 3.1
	* Autoconf 1.7
	* BASH 1.13.4
	* bc 1.02
	* Binutils 1.9 2.3
	* Bison 1.22
	* C Library 1.06.7
	* Calc 2.02b
	* Chess 4.0p62
	* CLISP 93.11.08
	* cpio 2.3
	* CVS 1.3
	* dc 0.2
	* DejaGnu 1.0.1
	* Diffutils 2.6
	* dld 3.2.3
	* doschk 1.1
	* ecc 1.2.1
	* elib 0.06
	* Emacs 18.59
	* Emacs 19.21
	* es 0.84
	* f2c 1993.04.28
	* Fileutils 3.9
	* find 3.8
	* Finger 1.37
	* flex 2.3.8
	* Fontutils 0.6
	* GAS 1.36.utah
	* GAS 1.38.1
	* GAS 2.2
	* GAWK 2.15.3
	* GCC/G++/Objective C 2.5.4
	* GDB 4.11
	* gdbm 1.7.1
	* Ghostscript 2.6.1
	* Ghostview 1.5
	* Ghostview for Windows 1.0
	* gmp 1.3.2
	* GNATS 3.01
	* GnuGo 1.1
	* gnuplot 3.5
	* cperf 2.1a
	* Graphics 0.17
	* grep 2.0
	* Groff 1.08
	* gzip 1.2.4
	* hello 1.3
	* hp2xx 3.1.3a
	* indent 1.8
	* Ispell 4.0
	* less 177
	* libg++ 2.5.1
	* m4 1.1
	* make 3.69.1
	* MandelSpawn 0.06
	* mtools 2.0.7
	* MULE 1.0
	* NetFax 3.2.1
	* NetHack 3.1.3
	* NIHCL 3.0
	* Oleo 1.5
	* p2c 1.20
	* patch 2.1
	* PCL 93.03.18
	* perl 4.036
	* ptx 0.3
	* rc 1.4
	* RCS
	* recode 3.2.4
	* regex 0.12
	* screen 3.5.2
	* sed 1.18 2.03
	* Shellutils 1.9.1
	* Shogi 1.1p02
	* Smalltalk 1.1.1
	* Superopt 2.3
	* tar 1.11.2
	* Termcap 1.2
	* TeX 3.1
	* Texinfo 3.1
	* Tile Forth 2.1
	* time 1.6
	* time 1.6
	* tput 1.0
	* UUCP 1.04
	* uuencode 1.0
	* wdiff 0.04
	* X11R5

MS-DOS Diskettes

The FSF distributes some of the GNU software ported to MS-DOS, on 3.5inch
1.44MB diskettes.  These disks have both sources and executables.

DJGPP Diskettes

We offer DJGPP on 30 diskettes.	 For further details, see *Note GNU
Software::.  The DJGPP diskettes contain the following:

	* Binutils 2.5.2
	* Bison 1.22
	* Diffutils 2.6
	* DJGPP 1.12m4
	* flex 2.4.7
	* GCC/G++ 2.6.3
	* GDB 4.12
	* Groff 1.09
	* gzip 1.24
	* libg++ 2.6.2
	* make 3.71
	* patch 2.1
	* sed 1.18
	* Texinfo 3.1

Emacs Diskettes

Two versions of GNU Emacs are included on the Emacs diskettes we distribute:
GNU Emacs version 19.29 handles 8-bit character sets; the other, MULE version
2.2, handles 16-bit character sets including Kanji.

Selected Utilities Diskettes

The GNUish MS-DOS Project ported GNU software to PC compatibles.  Though
GNUish is no longer active, users still ask for these ports done some years
ago.  We offer these ports on five diskettes.  In general, the ports run on
8086/80286-based 16-bit machines; an 80386 is not required.  Some are
necessarily missing features.

Included are: `cpio', `diff', `find', `flex', `gdbm', `grep', `indent',
`less', `m4', `make', `ptx', RCS, `sed', `shar', `sort', & Texinfo.

Windows Diskette

We offer GNU Chess and `gnuplot' for Microsoft Windows on a single diskette.

Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service

If you do not have net access, our subscription service enables you to stay
current with the latest GNU developments.  For a one-time cost equivalent to
three tapes or CD-ROMs (plus shipping in some cases), we will ship you four
new versions of the tape of your choice or the Source Code CD-ROM.  The tapes
are sent each quarter; the CD-ROMs are sent as they are issued (currently
twice a year, but we hope to make it more frequent).

Regularly, we will send you a new version of a Lisps/Emacs, Languages,
Utilities, or X Window System (X11R6) Required tape, or the Source CD-ROM.
The MIT Scheme and X Window System Optional tapes are not changed often
enough to warrant quarterly updates.  We do not yet know if we will be
offering subscriptions to the Compiler Tools Binaries or our new Books with

Since Emacs 19 is on the Lisps/Emacs Tape and the Source CD-ROM, a
subscription to either is an easy way to keep current with Emacs 19 as it

A subscription is an easy way to keep up with the regular bug fixes to the X
Window System.	We update the X11R6 Required tape as fixes and patches are
issued throughout the year.  Each edition of the *Note Source Code CD-ROMs::,
also has updated sources for the required part of the X Window System.

Please note: In two cases, you must pay 4 times the normal shipping required
for a single order when you pay for each subscription.	If you're in Alaska,
Hawaii, or Puerto Rico you must add $20.00 for shipping for each
subscription.  If you're outside of U.S., Canada, and Puerto Rico, you must
add $80.00 for each subscription.  See "Unix and VMS Software" and "Shipping
Instructions" on the *note Free Software Foundation Order Form::..

The Deluxe Distribution

The Free Software Foundation has been asked repeatedly to create a package
that provides executables for all of our software.  Normally we offer only
sources.  In addition to providing binaries with the source code, the Deluxe
Distribution includes a complete set of our printed manuals and reference

The FSF Deluxe Distribution contains the binaries and sources to hundreds of
different programs including GNU Emacs, the GNU C Compiler, the GNU Debugger,
the complete X Window System, and all the GNU utilities.

We will make a Deluxe Distribution for most machines/operating systems.	 We
may be able to send someone to your office to do the compilation, if we can't
find a suitable machine close to us.  However, we can only compile the
programs that already support your chosen machine/system - porting is a
separate matter (to commission a port, consult the GNU Service Directory;
details in *Note Free Software Support::).  Compiling all these programs
takes time; a Deluxe Distribution for an unusual machine will take longer to
produce than one for a common machine.	Please contact the FSF Office with
any questions.

We supply the software in one of these tape formats in Unix `tar' format:
1600 or 6250bpi 1/2in reel, Sun DC300XLP 1/4in cartridge - QIC24, IBM RS/6000
1/4in c.t. - QIC 150, Exabyte 8mm c.t., or DAT 4mm c.t.	 If your computer
cannot read any of these, please contact us to see if we can handle your

The manuals included are one each of the `Bison', `Calc', `GAWK', `GNU C
Compiler', `GNU C Library', `GDB', `Flex', `GNU Emacs Lisp Reference',
`Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction', `Make', `Texinfo', & `Termcap'
manuals; six copies of the `GNU Emacs' manual; and a packet of ten reference
cards each for Emacs, Bison, Calc, Flex, & GDB.

Every Deluxe Distribution also has a copy of the latest editions of our
CD-ROMs that have sources of our software & compiler tool binaries for some
systems.  The MS-DOS CD is in ISO 9660 format.	The other CDs are in ISO 9660
format with Rock Ridge extensions.

The price of the Deluxe Distribution is $5000 (shipping included).  These
sales provide enormous financial assistance to help the FSF develop more free
software.  To order, please fill out the "Deluxe Distribution" section on the
*note Free Software Foundation Order Form::.  and send it to:

	Free Software Foundation, Inc.
	59 Temple Place - Suite 330
	Boston, MA   02111-1307

	Telephone: +1-617-542-5942
	Fax (including Japan): +1-617-542-2652
	Electronic mail: gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu

GNU Documentation

GNU is dedicated to having quality, easy-to-use online & printed
documentation.	GNU manuals are intended to explain underlying concepts,
describe how to use all the features of each program, & give examples of
command use.  GNU manuals are distributed as Texinfo source files, which
yield both typeset hardcopy via the TeX document formatting system and online
hypertext display via the menu-driven Info system.  Source for these manuals
comes with our software; here are the manuals that we publish as printed
books.	See the *note Free Software Foundation Order Form::., to order them.

Most GNU manuals are bound as soft cover books with "lay-flat" bindings.
This allows you to open them so they lie flat on a table without creasing the
binding.  They have an inner cloth spine and an outer cardboard cover that
will not break or crease as an ordinary paperback will.	 Currently, the
`GDB', `Emacs', `Emacs Lisp Reference', `Programming in Emacs Lisp: An
Introduction', `GAWK', `Make', `Bison', & `Texinfo' manuals have this
binding.  The other GNU manuals also lie flat when opened, using a GBC or
Wire-O binding.	 All our manuals are 7in by 9.25in except the 8.5in by 11in
`Calc' manual.

The edition number of the manual and version number of the program listed
after each manual's name were current at the time this Bulletin was published.

`Debugging with GDB' (Edition 4.12 for Version 4.14) tells how to run your
program under GNU Debugger control, examine and alter data, modify a
program's flow of control, and use GDB through GNU Emacs.

The `GNU Emacs Manual' (11th Edition for Version 19.29) describes editing with
GNU Emacs.  It explains advanced features, including outline mode and regular
expression search; how to use special programming modes to write languages
like C++ and TeX; how to use the `tags' utility; how to compile and correct
code; how to make your own keybindings; and other elementary customizations.

`Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction' (Edition 1.04) is for people who
are not necessarily interested in programming, but who do want to customize
or extend their computing environment.	If you read it in Emacs under Info
mode, you can run the sample programs directly.

`The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual' (Edition 2.4 for Version 19.29) and
`The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Japanese Edition' (Japanese DRAFT Revision
1.0, from English Edition 2.4 for Version 19.29) covers this programming
language in depth, including data types, control structures, functions,
macros, syntax tables, searching/matching, modes, windows, keymaps, byte
compilation, and the operating system interface.

`The GAWK Manual' (Edition 0.16 for Version 2.16) tells how to use the GNU
implementation of `awk'.  It is written for those who have never used `awk'
and describes the features of this powerful string and record manipulation

The `Make Manual' (Edition 0.49 for Version 3.74) describes GNU `make', a
program used to rebuild parts of other programs.  The manual tells how to
write "makefiles", which specify how a program is to be compiled and how its
files depend on each other.  Included are an introductory chapter for novice
users and a section about automatically generated dependencies.

The `Flex' manual (Edition 1.03 for Version 2.3.7) teaches you to write a
lexical scanner definition for the `flex' program to create a C++ or C-coded
scanner that recognizes the patterns defined.  You need no prior knowledge of

The `Bison' manual (December 1993 Edition for Version 1.23) teaches you how
to write context-free grammars for the Bison program that convert into
C-coded parsers.  You need no prior knowledge of parser generators.

`Using and Porting GNU CC' (September 1994 Edition for Version 2.6) tells how
to run, install, and port the GNU C Compiler to new systems.  It lists new
features and incompatibilities of GCC, but people not familiar with C will
still need a good reference on the C programming language.  It also covers
G++.  We are doing limited copier runs of this manual until it becomes more

The `Texinfo' manual (Edition 2.21 for Version 3) explains the markup
language that produces our online Info documentation & typeset hardcopies.
It tells you how to make tables, lists, chapters, nodes, indexes, cross
references, & how to catch mistakes.  This second edition describes over 50
new commands.

`The Termcap Manual' (2nd Edition for Version 1.2), often described as "twice
as much as you ever wanted to know about termcap," details the format of the
termcap database, the definitions of terminal capabilities, and the process
of interrogating a terminal description.  This manual is primarily for

The `C Library Reference Manual' (Edition 0.06 for Version 1.09) describes
the library's facilities, including both what Unix calls "library functions"
& "system calls."  We are doing small copier runs of this manual until it
becomes more stable.  Please send fixes to `bug-glibc-manual@prep.ai.mit.edu'.

The `Emacs Calc Manual' (Edition 2.02 for Version 2.02) is both a tutorial
and a reference manual.	 It tells how to do ordinary arithmetic, how to use
Calc for algebra, calculus, and other forms of mathematics, and how to extend

How to Get GNU Software

All the software & publications from the Free Software Foundation are
distributed with permission to copy and redistribute.  One way to get GNU
software is to copy it from someone else who has it.  You can also get GNU
software directly from the FSF by ordering diskettes, tapes, CD-ROMs, or
Books with CD-ROMs.  Such orders provide most of the funds for the FSF staff
to develop more free software, so please support our work by ordering from
the FSF if you can.  See the *note Free Software Foundation Order Form::..

There are also third party groups who distribute our software; they do not
work with us, but can provide our software in other forms.  Some are listed
in *Note Free Software Redistributors Donate::; also see *Note Free Software
for Microcomputers::.  Please note that the Free Software Foundation is *not*
affiliated with them in any way and is *not* responsible for either the
currency of their versions or the swiftness of their responses.

If you decide to do business with a commercial distributor of free software,
ask them how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by
contributing money to free software development projects or by writing free
software themselves for general use.  By basing your decision partially on
this factor, you can help encourage support for free software development.

Our main FTP host is very busy & limits the number of logins.  Please use one
of these other Internet sites that also provide GNU software via FTP
(program: `ftp', user: `anonymous', password: YOUR E-MAIL ADDRESS, mode:
`binary').  If you have FTP access but can't reach one of these hosts, you
can get the software the same way from GNU's main FTP host, `prep.ai.mit.edu'
(IP address: `').  For more details & additional hosts, get the
files `/pub/gnu/GETTING.GNU.SOFTWARE' and `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/FTP' from any

Most of the files on the FTP sites are compressed with `gzip' to lessen FTP
traffic.  Refer to the `/pub/gnu/=README-about-.gz-files' on each FTP site
for instructions on uncompressing them.	 `uncompress' and `unpack' *do not

   * Africa: `ftp.sun.ac.za'.

   * Asia: `utsun.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp', `cair-archive.kaist.ac.kr'.

   * Australia: `archie.au'	       (`archie.oz' for ACSnet).

   * Canada: `ftp.cs.ubc.ca'.

   * Israel: `ftp.technion.ac.il'.

   * Europe: `ugle.unit.no', `ftp.funet.fi', `ftp.denet.dk',
     `ftp.vms.stacken.kth.se' (in `[.GNU-VMS]'), `src.doc.ic.ac.uk'
     `ftp.informatik.tu-muenchen.de', `ftp.win.tue.nl',
     `ftp.eunet.ch',	`irisa.irisa.fr', `archive.eu.net'.

   * USA: `ftp.cs.columbia.edu', `vixen.cso.uiuc.edu', `ftp.hawaii.edu',
     `mango.rsmas.miami.edu' (VMS GCC), `wuarchive.wustl.edu',
     `ftp.uu.net' (in `/systems/gnu'), `gatekeeper.dec.com'.

Those who can UUCP can get instructions via e-mail from info@contrib.de
(Europe).  For those with no Internet access, see *Note Free Software
Support::, for how to get electronic mail & file transfer via UUCP.

FSF T-shirt

There is a GNU & improved T-shirt.  The front has the GNU Emacs Lisp code
`(USE 'GNU)' with "`()'" being the dancing parentheses from the cover of our
`GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual' (drawn by Berkeley, CA artist Etienne
Suvasa).  The back of the shirt is still imprinted with the Preamble to the
GNU General Public License.

These shirts come in two colors, Natural & Black.  Natural is an off-white,
unbleached, undyed, environment-friendly cotton, printed with black ink, & is
great for tye-dyeing or displaying as is.  Black is printed with white ink &
is perfect for late night hacking.  All shirts are thick 100% cotton, & come
in sizes M, L, XL, & XXL.  GNU shirts often create spontaneous friendships at
technical conferences and on major university campuses!	 (They also make
great gifts!)


     *Strive for perfection in everything.  Take the best that exists and
     make it better.  If it doesn't exist, create it.  Accept nothing nearly
     right or good enough.*

     - Sir Henry Royce, co-founder of Rolls-Royce


Free Software for Microcomputers

We do not provide support for GNU software on most microcomputers because it
is peripheral to the GNU Project.  However, we are willing to publish
information about groups who do support and maintain them.  If you are aware
of any such efforts, please send the details, including postal addresses,
archive sites, and mailing lists, to either address on page 1.

*Note MS-DOS Diskettes:: and *Note CD-ROMs::, for microcomputer software
available from the FSF.	 Please do not ask us about any other software.	 We
do *not* maintain any of it and have *no* additional information.

   * Linux   (Also *note Debian GNU/Linux Book with CD-ROM::.)

     Linux (named after its main author, Linus Torvalds) is a GPLed kernel
     that implements POSIX.1 functionality with SysV & BSD extensions.
     Complete systems based on the Linux kernel are now available for Alpha &
     386/486/Pentium/Pentium Pro machines with one of these buses: ISA, VLB,
     EISA, PCI.	 Since these systems are essentially variant GNU systems, we
     call them "GNU/Linux" systems.  An m68k port is in testing (it runs on
     high end Amiga & Atari computers).	 PowerPC & MIPS ports are being
     worked on.	 FTP it from `tsx-11.mit.edu' in `/pub/linux' (USA) &
     `nic.funet.fi' in `/pub/OS/Linux' (Europe).

     Ask `majordomo@vger.rutgers.edu' about mailing lists.  See USENET
     newsgroups, e.g. `comp.os.linux.misc', for news.

   * Boston Computer Society

     The BCS has numerous free programs for microcomputers, including some GNU
     programs.	See URL: `http://www.bcs.org/' or ask:

	  Boston Computer Society
	  101A First Avenue - Suite 2
	  Waltham, MA	02154

	  Telephone: +1-617-290-5700
	  Fax:	     +1-617-290-5744
	  Electronic-Mail: `membership@bcs.org'
	  WWW: `http://www.bcs.org/'

   * GNU Software on the Amiga

     Get Amiga ports of many GNU programs via FTP from `ftp.funet.fi' in
     `/pub/amiga/gnu' (Europe).	 For info on (or offers to help with) the GCC
     port and related projects, ask Leonard Norrgard, `vinsci@nic.funet.fi'.
     For info on the GNU Emacs port, ask Dave Gilbert, `dgilbert@pci.on.ca' or
     see `http://www.pci.on.ca/~dgilbert/emacs-19.html' for a status update.
     You can get more info from a GNU FTP host (listed in *Note How to Get
     GNU Software::) in the file `/pub/gnu/MicrosPorts/Amiga'.

   * GNU Software for Atari TOS and Atari Minix

     Get Atari ports by anonymous FTP from `atari.archive.umich.edu', in
     `/atari/Gnustuff', maintained by Howard Chu, `howard@lloyd.com'.  The
     GNU software runs on all Atari 68000 and 68030-based systems; a hard
     drive and 4 MB RAM minimum are recommended for using the compilers.  See
     USENET newsgroups, such as `comp.sys.atari.st.tech', for discussions.

   * GNU Software for OS/2

     Ports of many GNU programs are on the FTP host `ftp-os2.cdrom.com' in
     `/pub/os2/unix'.  One of these is of the GNU C/C++/Objective-C Compiler
     to OS/2 2.x and OS/2 Warp, with the GNU assembler, documentation, and
     OS/2-specific C libraries.

     This is Eberhard Mattes' `emx' port, which also features GDB and many
     Unix-related library functions like `fork'.  Programs compiled by this
     port also run on a 80386 under DOS.  It is in directory
     `/pub/os2/unix/emx09a'.  `emx 0.9a' has GCC 2.6.3 & 2.7.0 ports.  To
     join the e-mail list, send email to `majordomo@iaehv.nl' containing
     `subscribe emx'.

Project GNU Wish List

Wishes for this issue are for:

   * GNU art that highlights a program or aspect of the GNU project.

   * Oleo extensions and other free software for business, such as accounting
     and project management programs.  Graphical free software applications
     for ordinary users who are not programmers.

   * Volunteers to distribute this Bulletin at technical conferences, trade
     shows, local and national user group meetings, etc.  Volunteers to get
     articles into their user group newsletters.  Please phone or fax the
     numbers on page 1, or email `gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu' to make arrangements.

   * Boston area volunteers for various tasks in the FSF Distribution and
     Programming Offices.  Please contact us at either address on page 1.

   * Volunteers to help write programs and documentation.  Send mail to
     `gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu' for the task list and coding standards.

   * Volunteers to type and proofread for the GNU Dictionary Project.  *Note
     Forthcoming GNUs::, for details.

   * Volunteers to build binaries for Deluxe Distributions & systems not yet
     on the *Note Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM:: (especially systems that
     don't include a C compiler).  Please contact us at either address on
     page 1.

   * SCSI tape drives for 4mm DAT cartridge tapes, 8mm Exabyte cartridge
     tapes, and 1600 or 6250bpi 1/2inch reel to reel tapes.

   * 600+ megabyte SCSI disks to give us more space to develop software.

   * Pentium Pro, Pentium, 486, or 386 PC laptops or notebooks.

   * Pentium Pro, Pentium, 486, or 386 PC compatibles with 200+ MB of disk &
     Ethernet cards.  High end HP-300, HP-700, & HP-800 workstations.  Sun
     SPARCstations.  Sixteen or thirty-two 1 Meg SIMMs for a Sun 4/110.

   * Professors who might be interested in sponsoring or hosting research
     assistants to do actual GNU development, with partial FSF support.

   * Speech and character recognition software and systems (if the devices
     aren't too weird), with the device drivers if possible.  This would help
     the productivity of partially disabled people (including a few we know).

   * New quotes and ideas for articles in the GNU's Bulletin.  We particularly
     like to highlight organizations involved with free information exchanges,
     software that uses the GNU General Public License and companies providing
     free software support as a primary business.

   * Information about free software or developers of free software that we
     may not know about.  Often, we only find out about interesting projects
     because a user writes and asks us why we have not mentioned those

   * Copies of newspaper and journal articles mentioning the GNU Project or
     GNU software.  Send these to the address on page 1, or send a citation
     to `gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu'.

   * Money.

     If you use & appreciate our software, please send a contribution.	One
     way to help is to order a tape, diskette, CD-ROM, or Book with CD-ROM
     from us.  A business can make a larger contribution by ordering a *Note
     Deluxe Distribution::.  This is especially helpful if you work for an
     organization where the word *donation* is anathema.  Because of the
     value received, the full dollar amounts of such donations are not
     tax-deductible as charitable contributions; however, they may qualify as
     a business expense.

Thank GNUs

Thanks to Jill and Professor Donald Knuth of Stanford University for their
regular, substantial contributions, & to John Romkey for his very large

Thanks to all those mentioned elsewhere in this & past Bulletins.

Thanks to the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Laboratory for Computer
Science, and Project Athena all at MIT for their invaluable assistance.

Ulrich Drepper for invaluable work on the GNU C library; Erich Boyeln for
working on Mach & a new boot loader; Shantanu Goel for working on Mach device
drivers; & Kazumoto Kojima for porting the Hurd to the MIPS.  Thanks to the
many companies & organizations who have bought our Deluxe Distribution; to
Simon Karpen, Scott Kay, Reuven Lerner, Chuck Campbell, Robert Lopez, Mike
Miscevic, Timothy Mooney, Kay Nettle, Alan Schwartz, Jason Verch, & Karl Vogel
for helping to build Deluxe Distributions; David Krikorian, James DuPrie, &
David Caswell for helping test our MS-DOS CD; Peter Ford, Joan Quigley, &
Douglas Alan for helping master GNU CDs;

For their help in Japan, thanks to: Nobuyuki Hikichi, Mieko Hikichi, Ken'ichi
Handa, Prof. Masayuki Ida, Yukitoshi Fujimura, Prof. Takafumi Hayashi,
Takeshi Hayashi, & Mr.	Nakamura.  Thanks to the Hewlett Packard Computer
Users' Association in Japan for their quarterly donations.  Thanks to the
Nihon Sun Users Group & Hitachi, Ltd. for their generous contributions.
Thanks to Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd., A.I. Soft, Village Center,
Inc., ASCII Corporation, & many others in Japan, for their continued
donations & support.

We thank those groups who have donated us booths at their conferences.

Thanks to all the volunteers who helped the GNU Project at conferences; Barry
Meikle of the University of Toronto Bookstore for donating ad space; Warren
A. Hunt, Jr. & Computational Logic, Inc. for their continued donations &
support; to Cygnus Support for helping the GNU Project in many ways.

Thanks to all who have lent or donated machines, including: the Open Software
Foundation for two 386s; Tadashi Kobayashi of Toshiba Corporation & Shinichi
Mochizuki of Toshiba America for a T4850 notebook computer; Cygnus Support
for a SPARCstation; Delta Microsystems for an Exabyte tape drive; an
anonymous donor for a 4mm DAT cartridge drive; Concentra, Inc. for four HP
workstations; Network Computing Devices, Inc. for three NCD X-terminals; Russ
Button for two SCSI disk drives; Simson Garfinkel for an NCD X-terminal; IBM
Corp. for an Exabyte tape drive & an RS/6000; Hewlett-Packard for a dozen
computers; CMU's Mach Project for a Sun-3/60; Intel Corp. for their 386
machine; NeXT for their workstation; MIT's Media Laboratory for an HP 68020;
SONY Corp. & Software Research Associates, Inc., both of Tokyo, for three
SONY News workstations;	 an anonymous donor for a Sun-3/280; Liant Software
Corp. for 5 VT100s; several anonymous donors & Rocky Bernstein for IBM RT/PC
hardware & manuals.

Thanks to all who have contributed ports and extensions, as well as all who
have sent in other source code, documentation, and good bug reports.

Thanks to all those who sent money and offered other kinds of help.

Thanks to all those who support us by ordering t-shirts, manuals, reference
cards, distribution tapes, diskettes, CD-ROMs, and Books with CD-ROMs.

The creation of this Bulletin is our way of thanking all who have expressed
interest in what we are doing.

Donations Translate Into Free Software

If you appreciate Emacs, GNU CC, Ghostscript, and other free software, you
may wish to help us make sure there is more in the future--remember,
*donations translate into more free software!*

Your donation to us is tax-deductible in the United States.  We gladly accept
*any* currency, although the U.S. dollar is the most convenient.

If your employer has a matching gifts program for charitable donations,
please arrange to: add the FSF to the list of organizations for your
employer's matching gifts program; and have your donation matched (note *Note
Cygnus Matches Donations!::).  If you do not know, please ask your personnel

Circle amount you are donating, cut out this form, and send it with your
donation to:

	Free Software Foundation, Inc.
	59 Temple Place - Suite 330
	Boston, MA  02111-1307

	$500	 $250	  $100	   $50	   Other $________

	Other currency:________

You can charge a donation to any of Carte Blanche, Diner's Club, JCB,
MasterCard, Visa, or American Express.	Charges may also be faxed to

	Card type: __________________  Expiration Date: _____________

	Account Number: _____________________________________________

	Cardholder's Signature: _____________________________________

	Name: _______________________________________________________

	Street Address: _____________________________________________

	City/State/Province: ________________________________________

	Zip Code/Postal Code/Country: _______________________________

Cygnus Matches Donations!

To encourage cash donations to the Free Software Foundation, Cygnus Support
will continue to contribute corporate funds to the FSF to accompany gifts by
its employees, and by its customers and their employees.

Donations payable to the Free Software Foundation should be sent by eligible
persons to Cygnus Support, which will add its gifts and forward the total to
the FSF each quarter.  The FSF will provide the contributor with a receipt to
recognize the contribution (which is tax-deductible on U.S.  tax returns).
For more information, please contact Cygnus:

	Cygnus Support
	1937 Landings Drive
	Mountain View, CA   94043

	Telephone: 415-903-1400
		   +1-800-Cygnus1 (-294-6871)
	Fax:	   415-903-0122
	Electronic-Mail: `info@cygnus.com'
	FTP: `ftp.cygnus.com'
	WWW: `http://www.cygnus.com/'

Free Software Foundation Order Form

All items are distributed with permission to copy and to redistribute.
Texinfo source for each manual and source for each reference card is on
the appropriate tape, diskette, or CD-ROM; the prices for these magnetic
media do not include printed documentation.  All items are provided on
an ``as is'' basis, with no warranty of any kind.  Please allow six
weeks for delivery (though it won't usually take that long).


Unix and VMS Software

These tapes in the formats indicated (*note Tapes::., for contents):

	Please circle the dollar amount for each tape you order.

		Reel to	  Sun (1)   HP	      IBM (2)	Exabyte	 DAT
		reel			      RS/6000
		Unix tar  Unix tar  Unix tar  Unix tar	Unix tar Unix tar
		9-track	  QIC-24    16-track  QIC-150
		1600 bpi  DC300XLP  DC600HC   DC600A
		1/2" reel 1/4" c.t. 1/4" c.t. 1/4" c.t. 8mm c.t. 4mm c.t.

    (c.t. = cartridge tape)

Lisps/Emacs	$200	  $210	    $230      $215	$205	 $225

Languages	$200	  $210	    $230      $215	$205	 $225

Utilities	$200	  $210	    $230      $215	$205	 $225

4.4BSD-Lite	$200	  $210	    $230      $215	$205	 $225

Scheme		$200	  $210	    $230      $215	$205	 $225

X11R6-Required	$200	  $210	    $230      $215	$205	 $225

X11R6-Optional	$200	  $210	    $230      $215	$205	 $225

	 (1) Sun tapes can be read on some other Unix systems.
	 (2) IBM RS/6000 tapes can be read on some other Unix systems.

Subscriptions, 4 updates for one year (*note Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service::.):

Emacs		$600	  $630	    $690      $645	$615	 $675

Languages	$600	  $630	    $690      $645	$615	 $675

Utilities	$600	  $630	    $690      $645	$615	 $675

X11R6-Required	$600	  $630	    $690      $645	$615	 $675

      Subtotal $ ______	 Please put total of the above circled amounts here.

These 1600 bpi reel-to-reel 9 track 1/2" tapes, in VMS BACKUP format (aka
interchange format) (*note VMS Emacs and VMS Compiler Tapes::.):

____ @ $195  = $ ______	  VMS Emacs, GNU Emacs source & executables only.

____ @ $195  = $ ______	  VMS Compiler, GCC, GAS, and Bison source and
			   executables only.

FSF Deluxe Distribution
(Please call with any questions.  *note Deluxe Distribution::. for machine,
operating system, and media types.):

____ @ $5000 = $ ______	  The Deluxe Distribution, with manuals, etc.

Machine: _____________________________________________________________________

Operating system: ____________________________________________________________

Media type: __________________________________________________________________

Version of X Windows System to build: _______________________________________

CD-ROMs, in ISO 9660 format (*note CD-ROMs::.):

GNU Source Code CD-ROMs, Version 7 with X11R6 (*note December 1995 Source Code CD-ROMs::.):

____ @ $240  = $ ______	  for corporations and other organizations.

____ @ $ 60  = $ ______	  for individuals.

Subscriptions, next 4 updates, of the Source Code CD-ROM, in ISO 9660 format
(*note Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service::.):

____ @ $720  = $ ______	  for corporations and other organizations.

____ @ $180  = $ ______	  for individuals.

GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, Version 3, December 1995 Edition
(*note Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM::.):

____ @ $220  = $ ______	  for corporations and other organizations.

____ @	$55  = $ ______	  for individuals.

MS-DOS Software

The following sources and executables for MS-DOS, on 3.5" 1.44MB diskettes
(*note MS-DOS Diskettes::.):

____ @ $ 90  = $ ______	  Emacs diskettes, GNU Emacs, for 80386 and up.

____ @ $ 80  = $ ______	  DJGPP diskettes, GCC version 2, and other tools
			   for 80386 and up (also on the
			   *note Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM::.).

____ @ $ 85  = $ ______	  Selected Utilities diskettes, 8086 and up.

____ @ $ 40  = $ ______	  Windows diskette: GNU Chess and gnuplot for
			   Microsoft Windows.


These manuals (*note Documentation::.).	 The latest version of each manual
will be shipped.  Please call if you want a specific version.

____ @ $ 25  = $ ______	  GNU Emacs version manual, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 50  = $ ______	  GNU Emacs Lisp Reference manual, in two volumes.

____ @ $ 60  = $ ______	  GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Japanese Edition.

____ @ $ 50  = $ ______	  Using and Porting GNU CC.

____ @ $ 50  = $ ______	  GNU C Library Reference Manual.

____ @ $ 50  = $ ______	  GNU Emacs Calc manual, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______	  Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______	  Debugging with GDB, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 25  = $ ______	  GAWK manual.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______	  Make manual.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______	  Bison manual, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______	  Flex manual, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______	  Texinfo manual.

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______	  Termcap manual.

Reference Cards

The following reference cards, in packets of ten.  For single copies please

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______	  GNU Emacs version 19 reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______	  GNU Emacs Calc reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______	  GDB reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______	  Bison reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______	  Flex reference cards.


GNU/FSF T-shirts, thick 100% cotton (*note FSF T-shirt::.):

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______	  Size M     ____ natural  ____ black.

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______	  Size L     ____ natural  ____ black.

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______	  Size XL    ____ natural  ____ black.

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______	  Size XXL   ____ natural  ____ black.

Older Items

Older items are only available while supplies last.

____ @ $  5  = $ ______	  GNU Emacs version 18 reference cards, in packets
			   of ten.

Please fill in the number of each older CD-ROM you order:

						for		for
						corporations	individuals:
						and other

GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM
	December 1994 Edition (Version 2)	____________	____________

GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM
	December 1993 Edition (Version 1)	____________	____________

Please note that the December 1994 Source CD is permanently out of stock.

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
	June 1995 edition with X11R6		____________	____________

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
	May 1994 edition with X11R6		____________	____________

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
	November 1993 edition with X11R5	____________	____________

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
	May 1993 edition with X11R5		____________	____________

GNU Source Code CD-ROM
	October 1992 edition with X11R5		____________	____________

Please put the total count and cost of the above older CD-ROMs here:

____ @ $ 80  = $ ______	  for corporations and other organizations.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______	  for individuals.


      Subtotal $ ______

Tax and Shipping Costs

	     + $ ______	  For addresses in Massachusetts: add 5% sales tax
			  or give tax exempt number.  There is no sales tax
			  on T-shirts.
	     + $ ______	  Shipping fee for addresses in Alaska, Hawaii, or
			  Puerto Rico:
			    $  5.00 base charge;
			  + $  5.00 for *each* Emacs Calc or Emacs Lisp
			    Reference manual ($ 5.00 * #ofMans);
			  + $ 20.00 for *each* tape subscription or CD
			    subscription ($20.00 * #ofSubs);
			  + $  1.00 for *each* item other then the above
			    (shipping for all other items =
						     $ 1.00 * #ofOtherItems).
	     + $ ______	  Shipping fee for most Foreign Destinations: (Please
			  do *not* use this formula for addresses in China,
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			  Philippines, and Thailand.  Please fax,
			  or call for an exact shipping quote.)
			    $ 20.00 base charge for orders to other
			      addresses outside of U.S., Canada, & Puerto Rico:
			  + $ 80.00 for *each* tape subscription or CD
			    subscription ($ 80.00 * #ofSubs);
			  + $ 10.00 for *each* of the other items in the
			    order ($ 10.00 * #ofItems).
	     + $ ______	  Optional (tax-deductible in the U.S.) donation.
		 ------	  We suggest 5% if paying by credit card.

	 TOTAL $ ______	  We pay for shipping via UPS ground transportation in
			  the contiguous 48 states and Canada.	For very
			  large orders, ask about actual shipping costs for
			  that order.

Shipping Information

Name: ________________________________________________________________________

Mail Stop/Dept. Name: ________________________________________________________

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Street Address: ______________________________________________________________

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Telephone number in case of a problem with your order.
For international orders, please include a Fax number. _______________________

|									     |
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|									     |

For orders from outside the U.S.:

You are responsible for paying all duties, tariffs, and taxes.	If you
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 |									   |
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For Credit Card Orders:

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|									     |
|     If you wish to pay by wire transfer or you are a reseller, please	     |
|     call or write us for details.					     |
|									     |

		Please mail orders to:	Free Software Foundation
					59 Temple Place - Suite 330
					Boston, MA   02111
WITHOUT NOTICE AFTER June 30, 1996.	Fax (including Japan): +1-617-542-2652

Version: January 1996 ASCII Bull linked


     Free Software Foundation, Inc			    |	    |
     Electronic Mail: gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu		    | stamp |
     59 Temple Place - Suite 330			    |	    |
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Copyright notice above.
Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111, USA

Updated: 22 Feb 1997 tower